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Topics - Md. Mazedul Islam Mazed

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Environmental Science and Disaster Management / sources of microbes
« on: March 30, 2013, 06:46:40 PM »

   In the air we breath
• In the soil
• In our skin and bodies
• Everywhere

Gram positive bacteria                      Cloth damaging fungi
Staphylococcus aurues or                Pyogens  Aspergillusniger
Staphylococcus epidermidis             Aspergillusfurnigatus
Corynebacterium                             Curvularialunota
Gram negative bacteria                   Crop damaging fungi
Escherichia coli                                Fusarium species
Proteus vulgaris                              Sclerotiumrolfsi

Microbes are the tiniest creatures not seen by the naked eye. They include a variety of micro
organisms like bacteria, fungi, algae and viruses. Bacteria are unicellular organisms, which grow
very rapidly under warmth and moisture. Further, sub divisions in the bacteria family are Gram
positive (Staphylococcus aureus), Gram negative (E-Coli), spore bearing or non-spore bearing
Some specific types of bacteria are pathogenic and cause cross infection. Fungi, molds or mildew
are complex organisms with slow growth rate. They stain the fabric and deteriorate the
performance properties of the fabrics. Fungi are active at a pH level of 6.5. Algae are typical
micro organisms, which are either fungal or bacterial. Algae require continuous sources of water
and sunlight to grow and develop darker stains on the fabrics. Algae are active in the PH range of
7.0-8.0. Dust mites are eight legged creatures and occupy the household textiles such as blankets
bed linen, pillows, mattresses and carpets. The dust mites feed on human skin cells and liberated
waste products can cause allergic reactions and respiratory disorde


Mold, mildew, fungus, yeast, and bacteria (microorganisms) are part of our everyday lives.
There are both good and bad types of microorganisms. The thousands of species of
microorganisms that exist are found everywhere in the environment and on our bodies. Microorganisms can be found almost everywhere in the environment. NASA researchers have found microorganisms even at a height of 32 km and to a depth of 11 km in the sea. In the ground, microorganisms have been found during oil drilling to a depth of 400 m. It is estimated that the total mass of all microbes living on earth is approximately 25-fold the mass of all animals. For their growth and multiplication, the minimum nutritional requirements are water, a source of carbon, nitrogen and some inorganic salts.

These are normally present in the natural environment. Textiles, by virtue of their characteristics and proximity to human body, provide an excellent medium for the adherence, transfer and propagation of infection - causing microbial species.  In the last few years, the market for antimicrobial textiles has recorded a double digit growth. This growth has been fuelled by the increased need among the consumers for fresh, clean and hygienic clothing. Extensive research is going on to develop new antimicrobial finishes

Highly effective antimicrobial finish is widely used in public facilities, schools, health care,
nursing homes, hotels, and restaurants. The application of our antimicrobial finish to textile
fabrics such as drapery and upholstery fabrics will impart maximum resistance to the growth of
bacteria and many viruses. Helps maintain a safer, more sanitary environment.[/center][/right][/pre][/left]

•   A natural ‘preformed’ capsule, made up of a strong carbohydrate outer cell wall and a lipid bilayer membrane.

•   Process uses no additives, only water, yeast .

•   High active loading, up to 70% w/w, 30–40% most common.

•   Flavour and other actives are released in contact with moist mucous membrane surfaces such as the tongue and nose without braking the cells.

•   Release properties in many cases allows reduction of flavour in product by as much as 75% without loss of flavor profile.

•   Due to the natural bioadhesive properties of  the yeast, flavour release can also be described as lingering or long lasting.

•   The double carbohydrate wall/lipid membrane capsule protects volatile products from evaporation, and from damage from light and oxygen, therefore, providing a highly stable product with extended shelf-life.

•   The capsules are not thermoplastic and retain and protect most of the capsule contents from heat, during processes such heat extrusion, and cooking processes such as baking, roasting, frying, boiling etc.

•   Cost-effective against all known microencapsulation technology

Microencapsulation is a natural phenomenon and the examples of ideal microcapsules are found in the nature i.e., spores, seeds, eggs and pollen etc only a few to mention. Due to numerous applications of microencapsulation and as a result there are a number of processes developed to encapsulate a galaxy of materials to suit the individual applicability. In the broadest sense, microencapsulation provides a means of packaging, separating and storing solid and liquid materials in a microscopic scale for a later release on your own desire under controlled conditions.
The fragrance compound and the essential oil are volatile substances. The most difficult task in preparing the fragrance emitting textile is how to prolong its lifetime of Odour. Micro-encapsulation is an effective technique to solve this. Microcapsules are minute containers that are normally spherical if they enclose a liquid or gas, and roughly of the shape of the enclosed particle if they contain a solid. It can be considered as a special form of packaging, in that particulate matter can be individually coated for protection against environment and release the volatile substance from the enclosed capsule as required. This property has enabled microcapsules to serve many useful functions and find applications in different fields of technology. For example, the storage life of a volatile compound can be increased markedly by microencapsuling. The key to aromatic textile is how to make microcapsules of fragrance com-pounds and essential oils without omitting any ingredient in order to ensure its effects. In addition, using a low-temperature polymer binder to attach a perfumed microcapsule to the surface of the textile is also an important part of preparing an aromatic textile. At the same time, durability in laundering and a soft handle should be carefully considered


Anyone can get benefit from pheromones which is with Pulling power finish to apparel and fabric

friendships grow more quickly, business relationships flourish, and sparks can fly on where they might not otherwise have existed.

Pheromones are small organic
molecules which act as a form of
chemical communication
between two animals of the same
species. They are typically
secreted onto the skin or hair, and
then travel through the air and
have an effect when inhaled.
Very tiny amounts of pheromones
can have large effects when inhaled

There is a special organ in the nose called the vomeronasal organ (or VNO) which detects and reacts with pheromones, though recent research shows that pheromones may be able to work even without interacting with the VNO. People do not have to smell a pheromone to be affected by it – it has been shown that even very tiny quantities which are too diluted to have any odor still have an effect on the brain.

Pheromones are secreted or excreted through the skin, for instance through a man's sweat, but over the years, and through hygiene, deodorant, antiperspirants and showers, people wash pheromones away or cover them up. They then try to make up for the lost pheromones with perfumes, after-shaves and colognes to attract the opposite sex. Many companies, therefore, have produced pheromones and special pheromone-laced perfumes to help the attraction along.


Pulling power finish is a finish that involves the fabric and apparel to
be impregnated with pheromones, which are said to attract
the members of opposite sex. These are so-called first-
shirt and give their wearers an advantage over their rivals.
Pheromones are hormone based scents that arouse the
senses of person in vicinity.

The American Association of Textile Chemists and Colorists
(AATCC) has developed standardised procedures for evaluating soil-release
finishes that provide a strong indication of the actual finish performance in the real world.

Evaluation of soil-release effects after washing is mostly visually done by-
1.comparison with photographic standards,
2.but also by reflectance measurements
3.and other instrumental techniques, including microscopy.


Mechanisms of soil release:

1 -Adsorption of detergent and absorption of water leading to:
Rollup of oily soil
Penetration of soil–fibre interface by wash liquid
Solubilisation and emulsification of soils

2 -Mechanical work leading to:
Hydrodynamic flow carrying away the removed soil
Fibre flexing to force soil from between fibres
Surface abrasion to remove soil physically
Swelling of finish to reduce inter-fibre spacing.


Soil-release finishes on apparel:

protection from soil redeposition during laundering and absorbency or transport of
liquid water.

Texture- a very important elements of fashion design.

An element of art, texture is the surface quality or "feel" of an object,, its smoothness, roughness, softness, etc. Textures may be Actual or Implied.


Produced by light of various wavelengths, and when light strikes an object and reflects back to the eyes.

An element of art with three properties:
(1) hue or tint, the color name, e.g. red, yellow, blue, etc.:
(2) intensity, the purity and strength of a color, e.g., bright red or dull red; and
(3) value, the lightness or darkness of a color.


A mark made by a moving point that has length and direction.  Often is defines a space, and may create an outline or contour, define a silhouette; create patterns, or movement, and the illusion of mass or volume. It may be two-dimensional (as with pencil and paper), three-dimensional (as with wire) or implied (the edge of a shape or form)

Types of lines include; vertical, horizontal, diagonal, straight or ruled, curved, bent,  points, angular, thin, thick, or wide, interrupted (dotted, dashed, broken) blurred or fuzzy, controlled, freehand, parallel, hatching, cross-hatching, meandering, and spiraling.

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