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Internet / What is Cisco ACI?Advantages of Cisco ACI
« on: August 25, 2020, 09:36:56 AM »
Cisco ACI
Cisco ACI, Cisco’s software-defined networking (SDN) architecture, enhances business agility, reduces TCO, automates IT tasks, and accelerates data center application deployments.

Why Today’s Solutions Are Insufficient:
Today’s solutions lack an application-centric approach. The use of virtual overlays on top of physical layers has increased complexity by adding policies, services, and devices.
Traditional SDN solutions are network centric and based on constructs that replicate networking functions that already exist.

ACI Key Benefits:
Centralized Policy-Defined Automation Management
Holistic application-based solution that delivers flexibility and automation for agile IT
Automatic fabric deployment and configuration with single point of management
Automation of repetitive tasks, reducing configuration errors
Real-Time Visibility and Application Health Score
Centralized real-time health monitoring of physical and virtual networks
Instant visibility into application performance combined with intelligent placement decisions
Faster troubleshooting for day-2 operation
Open and Comprehensive End-to-End Security
Open APIs, open standards, and open source elements that enable software flexibility for DevOps teams, and firewall and application delivery controller (ADC) ecosystem partner integration
Automatic capture of all configuration changes integrated with existing audit and compliance tracking solutions
Detailed role-based access control (RBAC) with fine-grained fabric segmentation
Application Agility
Management of application lifecycle from development, to deployment, to decommissioning—in minutes
Automatic application deployment and faster provisioning based on predefined profiles
Continuous and rapid delivery of virtualized and distributed applications
Source :'s%20software%2Ddefined,lack%20an%20application%2Dcentric%20approach.

Are you aligned with the frantic adoption rate of new digital technologies?

Does your business have a strong foundation for SMAC (social, mobile, analytics, and cloud) to incorporate the latest tech trends that’ll drive the post-digital wave?
Do you have a digitally mature workforce to offer customized products and services that adapt to the constantly changing realities?
Well, these are the crucial questions that businesses will need to ask themselves before assimilating the upcoming technologies of 2020.
In the post-digital world, along with digital realities, related products and services will be hyper-personalized. And to decipher that, we will require a technology vision that meets the requirements of constantly changing on-demand experiences.

In a digital ecosystem that’s transitioning from social, mobile, analytics and cloud (SMAC) to the distributed ledger and quantum computing, where does your business stand? To understand this question, we have come up with the latest technology trends that you can incorporate into your business.
To understand such questions, we have come up with the latest technology trends that you can incorporate into your business.


A software-defined wide-area network (SD-WAN), is a network that is abstracted from its hardware, creating a virtualized network overlay. Operators can remotely manage and quickly scale this overlay, which can span over large geographical distances. It is an application of software-defined networking (SDN).
An SD-WAN can connect several branch locations to a central hub office or cover multiple locations in a large campus such as a university campus.

Because SD-WAN is abstract from hardware, it is more flexible and available than a standard WAN. It relies on four central components:
•   Edge connectivity abstraction
•   WAN virtualization
•   Centralized management
•   Elastic traffic management

The Benefits of SD-WAN

The global SD-WAN market is predicted to swell to $5.25 Billion in 2023, according to an IDC forecast in July 2019, as more businesses embrace the benefits of a virtualized network.

The key benefits include:

•   Increased bandwidth at a lower cost since the network traffic can be provisioned for optimal speeds and throttle low-priority applications.

•   Centralized management across branch networks through a simple management console, which reduces the need for manual configuration and on-site IT staff

•   Full visibility into the network, as the controller gives operators a holistic view of the network.

•   More options for connection type and vendor selection, since the network can reside on COTS hardware and use both private and public connections to route its traffic.

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Internet / Digital Network Architecture (Cisco DNA)
« on: May 14, 2019, 11:01:44 AM »
What is the Cisco® Digital Network Architecture (Cisco DNA)?
The Cisco Digital Network Architecture (Cisco DNA) is Cisco’s architecture for enterprise networks – across the campus, branch, WAN, and extended enterprise. It provides an open, extensible, and software-driven approach that makes the network simpler to manage and more agile and responsive to business needs. Cisco DNA is an intelligent system that encompasses policy, automation, analytics, and open platform capabilities to deliver on all required aspects of an intent-based network.

What is the difference between Software-Defined Networking (SDN) and Cisco DNA? How do they relate to each other?
Cisco DNA allows IT to move beyond SDN and transcend the automation-focused network technologies that make up SDN. Cisco DNA uses a holistic systems approach to align the network to business intent. This approach combines automation with translation, policy, and assurance capabilities. Through its intent-based networking principles, Cisco DNA provides a way to make network services effective and agile as well as easy to use in an enterprise architecture journey to digital transformation. It is an architecture that includes ready-to-use applications as well as easily consumable APIs.

1. Internet of Things (IOT)
One of the biggest tech trends to emerge in recent years is the Internet of Things. Simply put, the Internet of Things (abbreviated IOT) is the idea that all technological devices can be connected to the internet and to each other in an attempt to create the perfect marriage between the physical and digital worlds. How will this impact you? It depends on your industry. For example, for those who work in marketing, advertising, media or business management, IOT could provide a wealth of information on how consumers engage with products by tracking their interactions with digital devices. In turn, this data could be used to optimize marketing campaigns and user experiences.
How it’s affecting industries: The really cool thing about IOT is that it’s not only changing the way we do business but also the business models we use to do it. For example, according to Deloitte, flexible consumption models (also known as pay-per-use models) are going become increasingly more popular across all industries as new customer data becomes available.

2. Machine learning
Another exciting emerging technology is machine learning, which is essentially a computer’s ability to learn on its own by analyzing data and tracking repeating patterns. For example, social media platforms use machine learning to get a better understanding of how you’re connected with those in your social network. They do this by analyzing your likes, shares and comments and then prioritizing content from your closest connections, serving you that content first.
How it’s affecting industries: In addition to shaping your day-to-day interactions with friends on social media, machine learning is also changing the way companies do business with customers. According to Deloitte, companies like Google are using machine learning on mobile devices which can continue learning even when offline. The result? Machine learning is reshaping the way businesses interact with their customers in a big way by helping them anticipate and meet customer needs more easily.

3. Virtual reality (VR)
Remember watching movies about virtual reality and thinking how cool it would be if it was actually like that in real life? Well, it’s about to be. Although VR has been around since the 1950s, until recently the technology wasn’t able to deliver the fully immersive digital experience users have been craving. That’s about to change with recent improvements to both hardware and programming, and the effects are going to be felt across almost every industry from retail to education.
How it’s affecting industries: Virtual reality has been a popular component of video games for several years and this trend is continuing to expand. In addition to video games, VR is likely to affect companies across the board as they adopt the technology to help them engage customers more effectively and optimize their sales and marketing efforts. It’s also a potentially useful tool for learning and is increasingly being adopted by educational organizations.

4. Touch commerce
Being able to buy anything you want with the touch of a finger may have seemed like a fantasy a few years ago, but it’s now a reality. Merging touchscreen technology with one-click shopping, touch commerce allows consumers to buy products easily from their phones. After linking their payment information to a general account and enabling the feature, customers are able to buy everything from clothes to furniture with just a fingerprint.
How it’s affecting industries: According to Deloitte, this is one of the biggest things to hit eCommerce in recent years with purchases of this type expected to increase by 150% this year alone and retailers in almost every industry anticipating an increase in sales directly related to this new technology.

5. Cognitive Technology
Cognitive technology is in the same vein as machine learning and virtual reality except that it’s a broader concept. For example, the cognitive technology umbrella includes things like natural language processing (NLP) and speech recognition. Combined, these different technologies are able to automate and optimize a lot of tasks that were previously done by people, including certain aspects of accounting and analytics.
How it’s affecting industries: Although cognitive technologies have a broad range of applications, Deloitte predicts that the industry sector most affected by this trend initially will be the software sector with 95% of enterprise software companies projected to adopt these technologies by 2020.
With emerging technologies changing professional industries including banking, eCommerce, healthcare and education, staying up to date on the latest trends will give you a better understanding of your chosen industry and make you a more competitive candidate. Best of all, this knowledge might open up new doors within your field and others.

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Internet / Hyperconvergence: A New Approach for Data center
« on: March 24, 2019, 10:29:55 AM »
As you can see, hyperconvergence is a drastically different approach to a data center. It removes the SAN completely. The hypervisor, server, and storage are now all fused into a single appliance called a node. To scale the solution, you just need to deploy additional nodes.

In the design, you’ll notice that the hyperconvergence solution includes both a solid state drive (SSD) and a hard disk drive (HDD), but this may vary by developer. There are all flash hyperconvergence solutions on the market today.

Finally, hyperconvergence is sometimes described as the software defined data center (SDDC), because a hyperconverged infrastructure is managed centrally by a single piece of software. Storage, compute, and the virtual machines are all managed by that same application.

Besides consisting of less physical equipment, hyperconvergence provides a number of important benefits to the IT environment and the business as a whole.

1)  Software-defined storage in a hyperconverged infrastructure is software-defined. The storage nodes act as one highly-reliable and redundant pool of storage. Should one node go down, the rest will remain unaffected.

2)  Agility: In a hyperconverged infrastructure, your workloads all fall under the same administrative umbrella. This makes it easier to migrate workloads from one location to another.

3)  Scalability: Because of the node-based architecture, it is very easy to scale up your hyperconverged data center. Simply add or subtract nodes to match your resource demand.

4)  Data protection: Hyperconvergence gives an organization the ability to easily restore data.

5)  Cost efficiency: Hyperconvergence brings an affordable economic model to any IT department. Because there is less equipment to purchase, maintain, and support, the recurring costs of supporting a hyperconverged data center are lower.

By delivering virtualization, storage, compute, network, management and data protection in an easy to manage but scalable application, an organization has the ability to seamlessly manage their complex infrastructure. Hyperconvergence is definitely emerging as a pivotal architecture for organizations of all sizes. Not only is it cost effective, but it plays a very important role in managing a company’s infrastructure.

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Demand for Cybersecurity Professionals

According to IDC, cybersecurity will be among the 20 most in-demand IT roles for the next decade. Learn more about skills that can boost your career.
Today's organizations are challenged with rapidly detecting cybersecurity breaches and effectively responding to security incidents. Teams of people in Security Operations Centers (SOC’s) keep a vigilant eye on security systems, protecting their organizations by detecting and responding to cybersecurity threats.
The CCNA Cyber Ops certification prepares candidates to begin a career working with associate-level cybersecurity analysts within security operations centers.
As of July 2018, The United States Department of Defense (DoD) has approved the Cisco CCNA Cyber Ops Certification for the DoD 8570.01-M for the CSSP Analyst and CCSP Incident Responder categories.

Exams And Recommended Training

210-250 SECFND
Understanding Cisco Cybersecurity Fundamentals (SECFND) v1.0
Self-study e-learning  |  Instructor-led

210-255 SECOPS
Implementing Cisco Cybersecurity Operations (SECOPS) v1.0
Self-study e-learning  |  Instructor-led

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Internet / What is IPv6 (Internet Protocol Version 6)?
« on: June 04, 2018, 10:08:56 AM »
IPv6 is the successor to Internet Protocol Version 4 (IPv4). It was designed as an evolutionary upgrade to the Internet Protocol and will, in fact, coexist with the older IPv4 for some time. IPv6 is designed to allow the Internet to grow steadily, both in terms of the number of hosts connected and the total amount of data traffic transmitted.
IPv6 is often referred to as the "next generation" Internet standard and has been under development now since the mid-1990s. IPv6 was born out of concern that the demand for IP addresses would exceed the available supply.
The Benefits of IPv6
While increasing the pool of addresses is one of the most often-talked about benefit of IPv6, there are other important technological changes in IPv6 that will improve the IP protocol:
•   No more NAT (Network Address Translation)
•   Auto-configuration
•   No more private address collisions
•   Better multicast routing
•   Simpler header format
•   Simplified, more efficient routing
•   True quality of service (QoS), also called "flow labeling"
•   Built-in authentication and privacy support
•   Flexible options and extensions
•   Easier administration (say good-bye to DHCP)

IT Forum / The advantages and disadvantages of Internet of Things
« on: May 20, 2018, 02:25:45 PM »
Here are some advantages of IoT:

1.   Data: The more the information, the easier it is to make the right decision. Knowing what to get from the grocery while you are out, without having to check on your own, not only saves time but is convenient as well.

2.   Tracking: The computers keep a track both on the quality and the viability of things at home. Knowing the expiration date of products before one consumes them improves safety and quality of life. Also, you will never run out of anything when you need it at the last moment.

3.   Time: The amount of time saved in monitoring and the number of trips done otherwise would be tremendous.

4.   Money: The financial aspect is the best advantage. This technology could replace humans who are in charge of monitoring and maintaining supplies.

Here are some disadvantages of IoT:

1.   Compatibility: As of now, there is no standard for tagging and monitoring with sensors. A uniform concept like the USB or Bluetooth is required which should not be that difficult to do.
2.   Complexity: There are several opportunities for failure with complex systems. For example, both you and your spouse may receive messages that the milk is over and both of you may end up buying the same. That leaves you with double the quantity required. Or there is a software bug causing the printer to order ink multiple times when it requires a single cartridge.

3.   Privacy/Security: Privacy is a big issue with IoT. All the data must be encrypted so that data about your financial status or how much milk you consume isn’t common knowledge at the work place or with your friends.

4.   Safety: There is a chance that the software can be hacked and your personal information misused. The possibilities are endless. Your prescription being changed or your account details being hacked could put you at risk. Hence, all the safety risks become the consumer’s responsibility.

IT Forum / What is the difference between H+, LTE, 4G and 3G?
« on: May 08, 2018, 12:48:31 AM »
E stands for Edge, Enhanced Data rates for GSM Evolution. It is pre 3G technology and again, more likely to occur when you are in a weak signal area. You may not be able to effectively browse the internet on your device, when getting this signal.
3G (Third Generation)
3G is the third generation of the mobile network and provides adequate signal strength for browsing the internet. Most smartphone devices have the option of 3G fallback (if 4G is unavailable in your area) and 3G network towers are available in nearly every city nationwide.
H (High Speed Packet Access)
H stands for HSPA, High Speed Packet Access. HSPA (or H) is considered an advancement of the 3G networks or "version 3.5". It offers a faster network connection than the 3G network.
H+ (Evolved HSPA)
H+ stands for Evolved High Speed Packet Access. The network created before the emergence of 4G. It offers the fastest maximum speeds of all 3G networks (including 3G and H or HSPA).
LTE/4G (Fourth Generation) 
Stands for fourth generation of the mobile network, and is also called LTE or Long Term Evolution. It offers the fastest maximum upload and download speeds of any network. For a network to consider itself 4G, it must meet the standards of the ITU or International Telecommunications Union.
Keep in mind, many H+ (HSPA+) networks mimic the speeds of 4G (or LTE), but because they do not meet the ITU requirements, they do not get the title of “LTE”.

IT Forum / Difference between Mac OS X and Windows
« on: June 09, 2017, 01:59:42 AM »
The battle between Mac and PC users has been raging for decades and for those who are not sure which side to be on then the challenge is deciding between which platform to use. This is always easy, especially with an increasing number of programs that work on both systems or even in the cloud, not to mention the fact that both offer business-friendly operation systems. The real question is what are the differences between a Mac and a PC?

Apple prides itself on its iconic design while PC design depends on which company is making them. Even with the first Macintosh, introduced in 1984, the Central Processing Unit (CPU) and monitor were housed in one single unit thus reducing the number of cables necessary and creating a sleeker look. This design forward view has carried throughout the company’s history and modern Macs are sleek, light, and designed to look cool.

PCs on the other hand, don’t come from one single manufacturer like Mac so there are countless designs available on the market. If you don’t like the design from one manufacturer you can simply look to others. With Mac, if you’re not keen on their design, you’re out of luck.

While both Mac and PC have similar internal parts like RAM, hard drives, and graphics cards, their speed and capacity varies. Macs generally outperform PCs because of better hardware optimization, but tend to skimp slightly when it comes to RAM, hard disk space, and USB ports. PCs offer a wider range of customization, and you can add almost any parts you want.

Connections and optical drives found on Macs and PCs are different too. Mac offers standard selection of features including a Superdrive, audio in and audio out, USB, FireWire, Thunderbolt, and Ethernet. PCs on the other hand offer comparable features but with added bonuses like Blu-Ray players, TV tuners, touch screens, and HDMI ports.

The main difference here is that with Macs you have generally limited customization options, while PCs usually allow for a much wider range whilst supporting different kinds of hardware.

Operating System
Most PCs today come preinstalled with Windows 8.1 while Mac runs OS X Mavericks with users having the option to upgrade to the new OS X – Yosemite – this fall. OS X is generally thought to be more user-friendly, while Windows PCs generally see a more comfortable user base and a higher number of programs that work with the OS.

However, with the increasing adoption of virtual desktops and cloud systems, the idea of a separate OS being better is quickly falling to the wayside. This is especially true if you use a virtualized desktop solution where you connect to a server which delivers your desktop.

One of the biggest reasons as to why Mac hasn’t captured a larger share of the market is due to the lack of software for its OS. This is most obvious in business computing where many applications are standardized for Windows but are not available on Mac. That being said, the major programs businesses use on a daily basis are all available for Mac too, so it’s more the customized software you will need to look into.

User interface (UI)
While many computer users will proclaim one or the other superior when it comes to user interface, or UI, this is ultimately a matter of personal preference. Highlights of the UI in Mac include Launchpad which is a screen full of app icons for easy access, hot corners that can be customized for various types of views, a dock featuring your favorite apps, full screen mode for apps, and spaces that create as many desktops as you like to help minimize clutter.

With PCs UI, highlights include a touch-friendly interface which contains live tiles or rectangular boxes on the screen that represent an app and which is refreshed with the latest app content. Above all, Windows has the familiar desktop which almost every computer user is comfortable with using, and may even prefer.

There are more components that set Mac and PC apart. Find out more next month where we will dig into security, selections and customer satisfaction between the two.

IT Forum / iPhone 7 Features
« on: September 22, 2016, 03:57:15 PM »
The iPhone 7, as you may have heard (you've certainly heard), has no headphone jack and it looks almost identical to the 2014 iPhone 6 and 2015 iPhone 6S. But there are still compelling reasons to consider an iPhone 7, even if you own last year's model.

The iPhone 7 is now fully water-resistant (it can take a shallow dunking).

The camera takes notably better photos, especially in low light, and adds the optical image stabilization feature previously restricted to the 5.5-inch Plus model.

The battery lasts longer -- probably a couple of hours or more a day, under normal usage. (We'll update this review after we test the battery in our lab.)

The processor is faster, although you might only notice the speed on some intensive games and the video and photo-editing apps.

Recently, Apple announced that it has taken new and significant measures to strengthen privacy on mobile devices, which will ensure that it is no longer possible for Apple or law enforcement to unlock encrypted devices. The news quickly triggered a reaction from FBI Director James Comey who stated that he was “very concerned” about these new steps and then went on to say that “What concerns me about this is companies marketing something expressly to allow people to place themselves beyond the law.”

The FBI’s concern is fully justified; computer crime has become an extremely sophisticated, global and lucrative business that continues to grow in its prevalence and frequency. According to a recent study from the security company McAfee, the annual cost to the global economy from cyber crime is now more than $400 billion.

New and powerful technologies adopted by consumers and business offer the same advantages to criminals, potentially hampering forensic investigations and rendering many traditional tools and techniques obsolete. Ironically, the powerful encryption necessary to protect our data has become an important part of the modern criminal’s toolbox.

To further complicate matters, there is a deep shortage of forensic experts. In addition, the sheer volume of complex data generated and stored in the cloud, on social media platforms and on mobile devices is allowing criminals to better cover their tracks — making the workload for investigators even greater.

While complex, these challenges are not insurmountable. However, they do present a series of long-term issues and questions, which must be addressed.

Four key areas of immediate concern include the needs:

For business and government leaders to better understand the importance of digital forensics and the cyber crime risks facing their organizations?
To strengthen the relationship between law enforcement and private enterprise and to promote best practices for conducting joint cyber crime investigations.
To inspire appropriate individuals to enter the cyber security field and to use their skills to improve investigation and support methods.
To keep pace with technology and to move toward a 24/7 “Forensics as a Service” model that uses the cloud’s powerful processing power to facilitate complex investigations.

Source :

Tools for Cyber Security / computer forensics and Uses of computer forensics
« on: September 18, 2016, 01:32:52 PM »
Computer forensics is the practice of collecting, analysing and reporting on digital data in a way that is legally admissible. It can be used in the detection and prevention of crime and in any dispute where evidence is stored digitally. Computer forensics follows a similar process to other forensic disciplines, and faces similar issues.

There are few areas of crime or dispute where computer forensics cannot be applied. Law enforcement agencies have been among the earliest and heaviest users of computer forensics and consequently have often been at the forefront of developments in the field.

Computers may constitute a ‘scene of a crime’, for example with hacking [1] or denial of service attacks [2] or they may hold evidence in the form of emails, internet history, documents or other files relevant to crimes such as murder, kidnap, fraud and drug trafficking.

It is not just the content of emails, documents and other files which may be of interest to investigators but also the ‘metadata’ [3] associated with those files. A computer forensic examination may reveal when a document first appeared on a computer, when it was last edited, when it was last saved or printed and which user carried out these actions.

More recently, commercial organisations have used computer forensics to their benefit in a variety of cases such as;

* Intellectual Property theft
* Industrial espionage
* Employment disputes
* Fraud investigations
* Forgeries
* Bankruptcy investigations
* Inappropriate email and internet use in the work place
* Regulatory compliance

IT Forum / Certified Information Systems Security Professional
« on: September 18, 2016, 01:24:06 PM »
The vendor-neutral CISSP certification is the ideal credential for those with proven deep technical and managerial competence, skills, experience, and credibility to design, engineer, implement, and manage their overall information security program to protect organizations from growing sophisticated attacks.

Backed by (ISC)², the globally recognized, nonprofit organization dedicated to advancing the information security field, the CISSP was the first credential in the field of information security to meet the stringent requirements of ISO/IEC Standard 17024. Not only is the CISSP an objective measure of excellence, but also a globally recognized standard of achievement.

Who should obtain the CISSP certification?
The CISSP is ideal for those working in positions such as, but not limited to:

Security Consultant
Security Manager
IT Director/Manager
Security Auditor
Security Architect
 Security Analyst
Security Systems Engineer
Chief Information Security Officer
Director of Security
Network Architect

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