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Topics - sadia.ameen

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166
The concentration of nutrients in animal food products is linked to the diets of the animals reared. Conventional production methods provide mineral diet supplements, while in organic farming animals depend on the mineral content in soil, which may not be sufficient.

For this reason, researchers at the University of Santiago de Compostela compared the mineral and toxic elements of organic and conventional milk taken from over thirty farms located in the northeast of the Iberian Peninsula.

The results demonstrated that mineral element content in organic milk is low compared with conventional milk, although no differences were found in the quantity of toxic compounds such as cadmium, which were also detected in very low concentrations.

"Levels of the elements that are typically supplemented in the diets of livestock in conventional systems -- particularly iodine, copper, selenium and zinc -- are higher than those found in organic milk," Marta López, researcher at the University of Santiago de Compostela and co-author of the study, explains.

In the researcher's opinion, the fact that organic milk contains lower levels of elements such as copper and zinc is not a problem because milk is not the primary source of these elements in our diets.

"Iodine is another matter," López goes on to clarify. "The contribution of iodine to our diets in countries like Spain is covered by iodised salt; in other countries, like England, with milk. In Spain the lack of sufficient iodine in some kinds of milk is especially relevant for children, due to the importance of iodine in neurological development, but also to people with diets low in salt."

Iodine is necessary for the metabolism, especially during pregnancy and infancy. Iodine deficiency can cause scurvy, which has historically been a big problem the world over, particularly in populations at a distance from the coast, who did not eat much fish, and so milk and its derivatives were the primary source of iodine.

167
Science Discussion Forum / Material defies laws of Physics
« on: July 07, 2013, 10:41:28 AM »
WHEN you squeeze something, it gets smaller. Unless you’re at Argonne National Laboratory.

At the suburban Chicago laboratory, a group of scientists has seemingly defied the laws of physics and found a way to apply pressure to make a material expand instead of compress/contract.

“It’s like squeezing a stone and forming a giant sponge,” said Karena Chapman, a chemist at the US Department of Energy laboratory. “Materials are supposed to become denser and more compact under pressure. We are seeing the exact opposite. The pressure-treated material has half the density of the original state. This is counterintuitive to the laws of physics.”

Because this behaviour seems impossible, Chapman and her colleagues spent several years testing and retesting the material until they believed the unbelievable and understood how the impossible could be possible. For every experiment, they got the same mind-bending results.

“The bonds in the material completely rearrange,” Chapman said. “This just blows my mind.”

This discovery will do more than rewrite the science text books; it could double the variety of porous framework materials available for manufacturing, health care and environmental sustainability.

Scientists use these framework materials, which have sponge-like holes in their structure, to trap, store and filter materials. The shape of the sponge-like holes makes them selectable for specific molecules, allowing their use as water filters, chemical sensors and compressible storage for carbon dioxide sequestration of hydrogen fuel cells. By tailoring release rates, scientists can adapt these frameworks to deliver drugs and initiate chemical reactions for the production of everything from plastics to foods.

“This could not only open up new materials to being porous, but it could also give us access to new structures for selectability and new release rates,” said Peter Chupas, an Argonne chemist who helped discover the new materials.

The team published the details of their work in the May 22 issue of the Journal of the American Chemical Society in an article titled “Exploiting High Pressures to Generate Porosity, Polymorphism, And Lattice Expansion in the Nonporous Molecular Framework Zn(CN)2 .”

The scientists put zinc cyanide, a material used in electroplating, in a diamond-anvil cell at the Advanced Photon Source (APS) at Argonne and applied high pressures of 0.9 to 1.8 gigapascals, or about 9,000 to 18,000 times the pressure of the atmosphere at sea level. This high pressure is within the range affordably reproducible by industry for bulk storage systems. By using different fluids around the material as it was squeezed, the scientists were able to create five new phases of material, two of which retained their new porous ability at normal pressure. The type of fluid used determined the shape of the sponge-like pores. This is the first time that hydrostatic pressure has been able to make dense materials with interpenetrated atomic frameworks into novel porous materials. Several series of in situ high-pressure X-ray powder diffraction experiments were performed at the 1-BM, 11-ID-B, and 17-BM beamlines of the APS to study the material transitions.

“By applying pressure, we were able to transform a normally dense, nonporous material into a range of new porous materials that can hold twice as much stuff,” Chapman said. “This counterintuitive discovery will likely double the amount of available porous framework materials, which will greatly expand their use in pharmaceutical delivery, sequestration, material separation and catalysis.”

The scientists will continue to test the new technique on other materials.

The research is funded by the U.S. Department of Energy’s Office of Science.

Source: Science Daily

168
Health Tips / lower BMI target
« on: July 07, 2013, 10:36:17 AM »
The National Institute for Health and Care Excellence guidance in the UK says the Asian and other ethnic groups must be extra careful about their weight because they are prone to diseases like diabetes, reports BBC.
BMI is a way of seeing if your weight is appropriate for your height. It is calculated by taking your weight (in kilograms) and dividing it by your height (in metres) squared to give you a BMI score.
It means a 5ft 11in (1.8m) Asian man should weigh below 11st 11lb (75kg) and an Asian woman who is 5ft 3in (1.6m) should weigh less than 9st 4lb (59kg).

169
Health Tips / Good night’s sleep protects heart
« on: July 07, 2013, 10:34:42 AM »
Good night’s sleep protects heart

Seven or more hours’ sleep a night boosts the benefits to the heart of a healthy lifestyle, research published in the European Journal of Preventive Cardiology suggests.

Keeping mentally busy tied to less memory loss

People who spend a lot of time reading, writing and otherwise seeking and processing new information lose their thinking and memory skills more slowly as they age, a new study published in journal Neurology suggests.

Drink more water, lose more weight!

Dieters who drink more water have greater weight loss, according to a new review of several prior studies published in The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition.

170
Story, Article & Poetry / THE MILKMAID
« on: July 07, 2013, 10:24:46 AM »
A milkmaid was on her way to the market to sell some milk from her cow. As she carried the large
jug of milk on top of her head, she began to dream of all the things she could do after selling the
milk.
“With that money, I’ll buy a hundred chicks to rear in my backyard. When they are fully grown.
I can sell them at a good price at the market.”
As she walked on, she continued dreaming, “Then I’ll buy two young goats and rear them on the grass close by. When they are fully grown, I can sell them at an even better price!”
Still dreaming, she said to herself, “Soon, I’ll be able to buy another cow, and I will have more milk to sell. Then I shall have even more money...”
With these happy thoughts, she began to skip and jump.
Suddenly she tripped and fell. The jug broke and all the milk split onto the ground.
No more dreaming now, she sat down and cried.

Do not count your chickens before they are hatched

171
Story, Article & Poetry / THE ANT AND THE DOVE
« on: July 07, 2013, 10:20:09 AM »
One hot day, an ant was searching for some water.
After walking around for some time, she came to a spring.
To reach the spring, she had to climb up a blade of grass.
While making her way up, she slipped and fell into the water.
She could have drowned if a dove up a nearby tree had not seen her. Seeing that the ant was in trouble, the dove quickly plucked off a leaf and dropped it into the water near the
struggling ant. The ant moved towards the leaf and climbed up there. Soon it carried her safely to dry ground.
Just at that time, a hunter nearby was throwing out his net towards the dove, hoping to trap it.
Guessing what he was about to do, the ant quickly bit him on the heel. Feeling the pain, the hunter dropped his net. The dove was quick to fly away to safety.
One good turn deserves another.

172
Story, Article & Poetry / DON'T CHANGE THE WORLD
« on: July 04, 2013, 05:27:08 PM »
Once upon a time, there was a king who ruled a prosperous country. One day, he went for a trip to some distant areas of his country. When he was back to his palace, he complained that his feet were very painful, because it was the first time that he went for such a long trip, and the road that he went through was very rough and stony. He then ordered his people to cover every road of the entire country with leather.
Definitely, this would need thousands of cows’ skin, and would cost a huge amount of money.
Then one of his wise servants dared himself to tell the king, “Why do you have to spend that unnecessary amount of money? Why don’t you just cut a little piece of leather to cover your feet?”
The king was surprised, but he later agreed to his suggestion, to make a “shoe” for himself.
There is actually a valuable lesson of life in this story: to make this world a happy place to live, you better change yourself - your heart; and not the world.

173
Seven or more hours' sleep a night boosts the benefits to the heart of a healthy lifestyle, research suggests.

According to a large study, traditional advice on exercise, diet, drinking and smoking reduced deaths from heart disease or stroke, but even more lives were saved by also having enough sleep.

Advice on getting enough sleep could have a substantial impact on public health, say European researchers.

In theory, many heart and stroke deaths could be prevented or postponed.

A team in the Netherlands tracked heart disease and strokes in more than 14,000 men and women for more than a decade.

By the end of the study, about 600 individuals had suffered heart disease or stroke, and 129 died.

The study found that deaths were less likely in people who followed all four positive lifestyle recommendations - taking exercise, eating a healthy diet, drinking alcohol in moderation, and not smoking.
Continue reading the main story   
“Start Quote

    This research shows that combining a good night's sleep with other healthy lifestyle choices can reduce your risk of heart disease”

Doireann Maddock British Heart Foundation

    Five things that stop a good night’s sleep

Observing all four behaviours was associated with a 57% lower risk of cardiovascular disease and a 67% lower risk of dying from stroke or heart disease, they say.

But when sufficient sleep - seven or more hours a night - was added to the other four lifestyle factors, the beneficial effect was amplified - resulting in a 65% lower risk of cardiovascular disease and an 83% lower risk of death from cardiovascular disease.

The researchers say other studies have shown a link between poor sleep and cardiovascular disease, but this is the first to look at whether sleep - added to the other four healthy lifestyle recommendations - can further reduce risk.

"If all participants adhered to all five healthy lifestyle factors, 36% of composite cardiovascular disease [heart disease or stroke] and 57% of fatal cardiovascular disease could theoretically be prevented or postponed," say the researchers, from the National Institute for Public Health and the Environment, Bilthoven, and Wageningen University.

"The public health impact of sufficient sleep duration, in addition to the traditional healthy lifestyle factors, could be substantial."

Commenting on the work, published in the European Journal of Preventive Cardiology, Prof Grethe S Tell, of the University of Bergen, Norway, said the benefits of sleep should be considered by public health experts and parents alike.

"The main message of the study is that we need to consider sleep as an important factor for health," she told BBC News.

"From a public health point of view we should encourage people to get enough sleep and like all other healthy lifestyle factors this needs to be taught at home."

174
Heart / Reduce Your Heart Attack Risk 50 Percent with Water
« on: June 15, 2013, 08:13:29 PM »
Written by  Jonny Bowden, PhD, CNS

A study in the American Journal of Epidemiology found that guys who drank five or more glasses of water had only a 46 percent chance of having a fatal heart attack, and women had only 59 percent risk, compared to people who drank two or less glasses of water daily.

It gets even better (or worse, depending on how you look at it). Women who drank two or less glasses of something other than water—such as tea, a soft drink, or juice — had a 147 percent greater risk for a fatal heart attack than women who drank five or more glasses of water. (Guys, you had a 46 percent greater risk if you skipped the water for another drink.) Now, if those stats confuse you, I’ll sum it up: drink more water and reduce your risk for a heart attack.

Even after researchers adjusted for other risk factors, these numbers still held intact.

Researchers here looked at coronary heart disease and fluid intake stats in 8,280 male and 12,017 female participants. Overall, these participants had 246 “coronary heart disease events” (128 in men and 118 in women) over the six-year follow-up period.

More than any other factor in this study, water intake determined fatal heart disease risk.

According to lead researcher Dr. Jacqueline Chan, this was the “first study to record the association between high water intake and reduced risk of coronary heart disease…by drinking more plain water, healthy people…reduced their risk of dying from a heart attack by half or more.”

Chan notes there isn’t much evidence about the eightglasses rule. She still wants people not to rely on tea, coffee, and other diuretics that can raise blood viscosity, and focus instead on plain water.

Consider the statistics and you’ll understand her position. Your body is about 83 percent water; your brain and muscles are about three-quarters water, and even your bones pack 22 percent water. Water contributes to every single metabolic process in your body, including absorbing nutrients and removing toxic waste.

Dehydration, on the other hand, can elevate at least four independent risk factors for heart disease: whole blood viscosity, plasma viscosity, hematocrit, and fibrinogen. Heart attacks occur more frequently in the morning, when your blood is thicker because of water loss while you’re sleeping. I don’t know about you, but that’s enough reason for me to crank up my water quota
.

Maybe you’re not concerned about a heart attack. But I bet I’ll get your attention when I say that not drinking enough water can make you fat. That’s because even when you’re mildly dehydrated, you can raise your stress hormone cortisol one to two percent. Among the many things cortisol does is store fat and break down muscle.

Now, you’re going to hear naysayers claim the dehydration issue is overhyped. They argue there’s no double-blind, placebobased study to show you need eight glasses of water every day. Others claim you get enough water from the tea, coffee, and Diet Coke, so there’s no need to bother with boring water.

Nonsense, I reply to these critics. I believe more water is better. Ideally, I would like you to drink half your weight in water ounces. So if you weigh 200 pounds, you need to drink 100 ounces of water a day. No kidding.

If you’re shaking your head that doing so is impossible, I’m going to give you an easy tip to meet your water quota. Buy a liter-sized Sigg, Klean Kanteen, or other stainless steel water bottle. Fill it up three times, and sip on it, throughout your day.

Bam! You’re done. See how easy that was? You’ll save money, the environment, and you won’t even have to worry about those pesky chemicals leaching from plastic bottles. Best of all, you’ll stay hydrated and enjoy the countless benefits water provides for your body.

175
Travel / Visit / Tour / St. Martin’s Island
« on: June 15, 2013, 08:06:42 PM »
St. Martin’s Island is a small island in the northeastern part of the Bay of Bengal, about 9 km south of the tip of the Cox’s Bazar-Teknaf peninsula, and forming the southernmost part of Bangladesh. It is about 8 km west of the northwest coast of Myanmar, at the mouth of the Naf River. The local name of the island is “Narical Gingira”, also spelled “Narikel Jinjira/Jinjera”, translated from Bangla, meaning ‘Coconut Island’. It is the only coral island in Bangladesh.
St. Martin's Island
Most of the island’s 5500 inhabitants live primarily from fishing. Besides, the other staple crops are rice and coconut. Being very common in the island, Algae is collected, then dried and finally exported to Myanmar. Between October and April, the fishermen from neighbouring areas bring their caught fishes to the island’s temporary wholesale market. As the centre and the south are mainly farmland and makeshift huts, most of the strenuous things are around the far north of the island.

Motel Nijhum is one of the best hotels in St. Martin�s Island. Besides, Prashad Paradise and Sraboni Bilash are also well known hotels. All these hotels are situated near the seashore.

Do not expect to find taxis, tarred roads or electricity here. Except for the larger hotels that run on generators, there is no electricity in the island. The island is all about sun, sea and palm trees. During the day, the island comes alive with water and beach sports, with beach parties and bonfires lighting up the evening skies.

St. Martin’s Island has become a popular tourist spot. Currently, three shipping liners run daily trips to the island, including Sea-Truck and Keary-Sindbad. Tourists can book their trip either from Chittagong or from Cox’s Bazar. The surrounding coral reef of the island has an extension named Chera Dwip. A small bush is there, which is the only green part of Chera Dwip, enhancing the beauty of this island. People do not live on this part of the island, so it is advisable for the tourists to go there early and come back by afternoon.

You will get the best weather usually between November and February. Undoubtedly, this is the major tourist season. Between March and July, a tourist must keep his eyes on the forecast keenly, as cyclone can strike during these times. The island was devastated by a cyclone in 1991 but has fully recovered, and was untouched by the 2004 tsunami. Thus, March to July is tourist off season.

In the past 5 years St. Martin’s visitor population has increased dramatically. While this situation has proven to be lucrative for the islanders, it is causing the natural beauty of the island to deteriorate. Presently there are many efforts being put forth to preserve the several endangered species of turtles that nest on the island, as well as the corals, some of which are found only on Narikel Jinjera. Pieces of the coral reef are being removed in order to be sold to tourists.[1] Nesting turtles are sometimes taken for food, and their hatchlings are often distracted by the twinkling lights along the beach. Species of fish, a few just recently discovered, are being overfished. Every year the fishermen must venture further out to sea to get their catch. Most of them use motorless boats.

It’s possible to walk around the island in a day because it measures only 8 sq. km (3 sq. mile), shrinking to about 5 sq. km (2 sq. mi) during high tide. The island exists only because of its coral base, so removal of that coral risks erosion of the beaches. Sadly, St. Martin’s has lost roughly 25% of its coral reef in the past 7 years.

176
Travel / Visit / Tour / Ahsan Manjil
« on: June 15, 2013, 08:04:24 PM »
Built in 1872 and standing on the river Buriganga, this stately building offers the visitors a feeling of the life-style of the Nawabs of Dhaka. Sometimes known as the Pink Palace, this building now houses a splendid museum. Basically, it was the residence of the Nawabs. Nawab Abdul Gani renovated this building in the year 1872  and named it after his son Khaza Ahasanullah. On the bank of river Buriganga in Dhaka the Pink majestic, Ahsan Manjil has been renovated and turned into a museum recently. It is an epitome of the nation’s rich cultural heritage.Based on an access of 1 meter, two-story alcazar measures 125.4m by 28.75m. The acme of the arena attic is 5 meters, and the aboriginal attic of 5.8 meters. There are columns of the acme of the arena floor, both arctic and south ancillary of the castle. A ample accessible stairway bottomward from the south portico, boarded the river through the advanced yard.
Ahsan Manzil information,Dhaka

Ahsan Manzil information,Dhaka

Ahsan Manzil, an architectural gem, is attestant to abounding actual contest of Bangladesh. The aftermost allotment of the 19th aeon until the aboriginal years of Pakistan, Muslim leaders of East Bengal emerged from the palace. Nawabs of Dhaka acclimated to do business actuality in cloister as arch of the Panchayet (village council) every day. Abounding anti-Congress affairs were captivated in the Nawab of Ahsanullah condescension, a allegiant apostle of the Muslim identity. Almost all the viceroys, governors and abettor governors of British India visited Dhaka spent some time at the Ahsan Manzil.
Constraction of the architecture was started in 1859 and ends at 1872. Abdul Ghani called it Ahsan Manzil afterwards his son Nawab Khwaja Ahsanullah. The anew congenital alcazar aboriginal came to be accepted as the Rang Mahal. On April 7, 1888, a tornado acquired astringent accident to Ahsan Manzil — Andar Mahal, the earlier allotment of the palace, was absolutely devastated. During the about-face of the Andar Mahal a acceptable allotment of the alcazar was overhauled and repaired, and the admirable arch of the present Rang Mahal was added. Ahsan Manzil was afresh damaged by an convulsion in 12 June 1897 and afresh repaired by the Nawab Ahsanullah.
Location:
Ahsan Manzil is Kumartoli, Shakara Waiz Ghat Bazar Old Dhaka. And ‘Sutrapur Thana under Dhaka City Corporation. Ahsan Manzil palace was the residence of the Nawabs but is now a museum. An influential family in the old Dhaka Nawabs lived for many years. They built a magnificent building, a living wage. Ahsan Manzil is one of them.

177
Life Style / To cycle or not to cycle
« on: June 13, 2013, 12:44:17 PM »

To cycle or not to cycle


Driving a car or maneuvering any vehicle, for that matter, in our country has always been a rather male-dominated activity. Sure, a lot of women are seen on the streets behind the wheels or on the wheels but, it does not come without unwanted attention and at times incidents.

While a lot of men nowadays are opting to buy motorbikes or bicycles to make their commute through the city easier given the tiring traffic jams, the majority of women and girls refrain from doing so due to various reasons ranging from security concerns to social norms.

Since we live in a society where fingers are pointed at the slightest deviation from the established norms, women on two-wheelers are not spared similar repercussions on the streets. Women driving cars face a lot of subtle harassment from other drivers, especially rickshawpullers and auto-rickhshaw drivers. Even if the female driver is driving alright and has not come into any trouble with another vehicle, she is not immune to being talked about loudly among other drivers, pointed at and smirked at. Women on two-wheelers are more vulnerable and exposed to this because of the fact that the vehicle they are driving is an open one unlike a closed car. Added to this is the fact that if a woman wears western clothes for the ease of riding a scooter or bicycle this attitude among pedestrians, fellow drivers and at times commuters increase manifold. It is not limited to verbal taunts; groping is considered that much easier for the perverts out on the roads, because it is very easy to extend one’s hand while walking down the street, as a woman pedals close-by.

Moreover, if, while riding a scooter or bicycle, the woman somehow has an accident, by-standers usually enjoy blaming the woman for riding on the streets in the first place irrespective of whose fault the accident was. Tied to that is the fact of safety from muggers. While both males and females may fall prey to muggers, speeding away in a car or a bike, women on two-wheelers are more likely to be victims. This is because women usually carry a purse which, while riding a scooter, they hang across their torso and they can easily be pulled from the side. The problem with this is not limited to the loss of money and personal possessions; the graver problem is that when the bags are tugged at it may cause the woman to fall off her vehicle resulting in serious injuries and fatal accidents.

Needless to say, it is very rare to see many women out there on the streets using an i

178
Person / Rosalind Franklin
« on: June 13, 2013, 12:40:23 PM »
Rosalind Franklin

    By choice she did not emphasize her feminine qualities. . . . There was never lipstick to contrast with her straight black hair, while at the age of thirty-one her dresses showed all the imagination of English blue-stocking adolescents. So it was quite easy to imagine her the product of an unsatisfied mother who unduly stressed the desirability of professional careers that could save bright girls from marriages to dull men. . . . Clearly Rosy had to go or be put in her place. The former was obviously preferable because, given her belligerent moods, it would be very difficult for Maurice [Wilkins] to maintain a dominant position that would allow him to think unhindered about DNA. . . . The thought could not be avoided that the best home for a feminist was in another person's lab.

Ten years after Rosalind Franklin's death, James Watson described her thus in his best-selling book The Double Helix. When a friend of Franklin's tried to console her mother that at least Franklin would always be remembered, her mother's answer was, "I would rather she were forgotten than remembered in this way."
Photograph
From Rosalind Franklin: The Dark Lady of DNA by Brenda Maddox

Watson's account omitted the fact that Franklin later became his friend, and — much more significantly — that without an unauthorized peek at her unpublished data, he and Francis Crick probably would neither have published their famous paper on the structure of DNA in 1953, nor won their Nobel Prizes in 1962. Franklin did not share the Nobel Prize; she died in 1958 at the age of 37.

Franklin was born to an affluent Jewish family that strove for centuries to become more English than the English themselves. Described as an "alarmingly clever" girl, she amused herself with math problems and vowed to become a scientist. She won a scholarship to Cambridge, though her family refused the money and paid her tuition with its own funds. After completing her Ph.D., she did post-doctoral work in France and specialized in X-ray crystallography of carbonaceous solids. She eventually returned to England and took a position at King's College London. It was there that she took X-ray diffraction photographs of DNA strands that uncovered DNA's double-helical structure.

Franklin's 27 months at King's were among the least happy of her life. She missed France and despised the men's-club atmosphere that even forbade her to eat in the same dining room as her male colleagues. She butted heads especially with senior researcher Maurice Wilkins. In fact, Wilkins and Franklin were both misled (maybe out of sheer carelessness) by J.T. Randall, director of King's Biophysics Unit. Randall sent Franklin a letter telling her that she would be in charge of DNA research, all the while allowing Wilkins to think that DNA would remain his territory and that Franklin would assist him. Communication between Franklin and Wilkins all but disappeared, and Wilkins didn't learn of Randall's letter to Franklin until years after her death. While she was still very much alive, and planning to depart from King's, Wilkins wrote to Crick that he hoped the "smoke of witchcraft" would soon leave his eyes.

Perhaps to his later regret, Wilkins eventually showed one of Franklin's unpublished DNA photographs (the now-famous "Photograph 51") to Watson and Crick of the Cavendish. Upon seeing the photograph, Watson realized that DNA was helical. Wilkins hoped to publish with Watson and Crick, but after seeing the DNA photograph, they scooped him as well as Franklin. They published their paper shortly afterwards with scant acknowledgment to Franklin or her assistant, Raymond Gosling.

Crick — who became a close friend of Franklin's before she died — remarked in the late 1970s, "First-class scientists take risks. Rosalind, it seems to me, was too cautious." That "caution" included pointing out to Watson and Crick that an early attempt they made at modeling DNA was wrong. And a recent discovery of some of Crick's correspondence, which had long been considered lost, suggests that Franklin's interpretation of DNA was quite logical to Crick himself. Franklin photographed DNA in two forms. The B (or "wet") form, pictured in Photograph 51, suggested a helical structure, but the A ("dry") form had a crystalline structure. The A form produced better diffraction data. In focusing on the A form in 1952, Franklin moved away from a helical interpretation, something Watson criticized her for in his book. After the famous DNA-structure paper was published, however, Crick wrote to Wilkins that he had only then seen the A form of DNA, and "I must say I am glad I didn't see it earlier, as it would have worried me considerably."

Some scientists familiar with the situation suspected that Franklin would have discerned the helical structure of DNA on her own in several more weeks. She had already authored a paper acknowledging the likelihood of a helical structure for DNA by the time she learned of Watson and Crick's model. But whereas Watson leapt from one hypothesis to another, Franklin proceeded with a more methodical approach, one endorsed by X-ray crystallography pioneer Dorothy Hodgkin. Taking X-ray photographs of DNA was hardly simple, and Franklin took the time to completely understand what she was doing. The A form of DNA was more suitable for her methodical approach.

Had Franklin known what Wilkins did, she might have been livid. Or she might not. As it was, she didn't realize there was any race to publish the structure of DNA, and she was simply happy to be leaving King's for the friendlier environment of J.D. Bernal's lab at Birkbeck College. There she did pioneering work with the tobacco mosaic virus and started studying polio. Watson and Crick, meanwhile, had to wait years before the significance of their study struck a note with the public.

Franklin's friends and family pointed out that Watson didn't know her well, or chose to ignore much of what he did know when he wrote The Double Helix. In fact, she was known for her fashion sense and vivacious personality — in the right circles. And contrary to what Watson's book implied, she was perfectly capable of interpreting her DNA photographs, not just taking them. Yet Franklin was no saint. She had a short temper, she often seemed unfriendly to those who didn't know her, and her affluent background may have affected her opinions of her less-wealthy colleagues more than she realized.

In Franklin's day, photographing DNA could take up to 100 hours of radiation exposure, and in the years she worked with X-ray equipment, she rarely took precautions to protect herself from radiation. In fact, few scientists at the time did, but Franklin was especially unlucky. From excessive radiation or other causes, she developed ovarian cancer in her mid-30s. Of all the players in the discovery of DNA, she alone was unable to defend herself from Watson's portrayal, which wasn't particularly kind to anyone. In a perverse sense, however, Watson did Franklin a favor with his "Rosy" caricature; had he not painted Franklin as a witch, she might have been more easily forgotten. As it turned out, Watson timed his little book rather unwisely; when he published it, in 1968, the feminist movement was well underway, and Franklin became an icon. (To be fair, Watson later admitted that, had she lived, Franklin might well have received her own Nobel Prize, perhaps sharing the Chemistry Award with Wilkins.) Yet there was more to her life than her work at King's. In her short life, she authored or co-authored 37 scientific papers, and besides her contribution to the study of DNA, she won international respect for her work on carbonaceous solids and virology.

179
Story, Article & Poetry / 25 interesting facts about earth
« on: June 13, 2013, 12:27:07 PM »
We may live in different houses, but we all share a common space which is considered to be the entire humanity’s home. We are talking about Earth, the only place in the universe where human life is possible.

It is true that we are all moving towards seeking planets from neighboring solar system, and galaxies but for now, the Blue Planet is the only planetary body in the universe that can sustain human life.

We’ve all been living on Earth since day 1, but how much do you really know about the Earth? We are all caught up by the bustle and hustle of modern day life that we forget to take the time to truly appreciate our home planet.
1. The Earth- What’s in a Name?
Mercury, Venus, Saturn, Neptune. Notice how all planets of the Milky Way are named after Gods and Goddesses of Greek and Roman Mythology?

The word, Earth has Old Saxon and Germanic origins. It features an Indo-European base, “er” which in turn resulted in the natural formation of the words ertho and erde in Germanic, aarde in Dutch, and earth in English.

Nobody really knows as to who came up with the name, Earth as most ancient civilizations ultimately refer to the land and soil as Earth, the planet where all humans live in. This is one of the many Earth facts which will remain hidden or unanswered for now.

2. The Earth is Alive?
The earth isn’t just a place where living things can survive and thrive as it is postulated to be a giant living organism itself. The Gaia Hypothesis claims that the Earth is an organic system which has the ability to self-regulate in order to maintain life as we know it.

Studies are underway to prove that there truly is a system which connects the biological and physical processes that transpire among living creatures that inhabit the Earth. And with all the advancements in the field of Earth Science, we are closer to finding out if the Earth is actually a sentient, self-regulating living organism.

3. The Earth’s Scar
The Andes is popular to millions as it is known to be the largest and longest mountain range on Earth.

It is located along the Western part of South America featuring a length of about 4,300 miles and a width of 420 miles. It spans through seven counties namely Argentina, Chile, Peru, Bolivia, Colombia, Venezuela, and Ecuador.
It is quite impressive, but it is actually the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, majority of which is found underwater, that is the largest and longest on Earth. In fact, it is considered to be the largest geological feature of planet Earth, which is 6,200 miles long.

4. Explosive Fact
Another amazing feature of the Earth is that it has almost 500 volcanoes worldwide. About 80% of the Earth, that which is found above and below the surface, are made of volcanic soil.

5. Theia, The Twin
One of the most interesting facts about Earth is that it used to have a twin planet, named Theia. Some 4.5 billion years ago, a planetary body which was postulated to be large as the planet Mars, shared the same orbit with Earth.

A collision between Earth and Theia transpired soon after, which resulted in the formation of the Moon.
6. Earth, ever-moving
A supercontinent will be formed 25 million years from now. This is due to the constant movement of the tectonic plates. The rate of movement differs from one continent to another. In the Pacific, the plates move faster at 4cm per year, while the rate of movement in the North Atlantic is at 1cm annually.

7. The History of Pollution
It was between the late 18th century and early 19th century that the Industrial Revolution boomed and flourished throughout developing countries across the globe.

Not only did it bring economic change to the scene, but environmental changes as well. More air, water, and land pollutants were introduced to nature. Natural resources started to be abused and depleted during this period, which ultimately resulted in the degradation of the environment in astronomical levels.

What can we do about it? It all starts with education – it is through understanding of the interesting facts about Earth’s remarkable qualities that we can encourage conservation and help us enjoy its wonders for generations to come.

8. The Color of Earth
The Earth is popularly dubbed as the Blue Planet. Astronauts who first went to space describe the entirety of Earth as blue. This is due to the fact that 71% of the planet is covered by bodies if water.
9. The Earth is Hot
Aside from the sun as Earth’s main source of heat energy, humans could theoretically survive without the sun’s heat as the planet’s inner core is hot enough to supply energy to its inhabitants.

It is estimated that the core temperature is between 5,000 to 7,000 degrees Celsius. It is just as hot as the sun’s surface too!

10. Unique Tectonics
Planet Earth is the only planet of the Milky Way which features tectonic plates.
11. Space Dust
There are approximately 30,000 space particles and dust that enter the Earth’s atmosphere annually. Fortunately, the majority of this debris burns up when it enters the earth’s atmosphere, resulting in shooting stars instead of giant craters.

12. The Earth isn’t Round
The accurate description of the Earth’s figure is oblate spheroid. This means that it is spherical, but also flattened from its two opposite poles.

The rotating motion of the earth results in centrifugal force, which in turn causes the planet to retain its disk-shaped figure.

13. Water Matters
Although water has been detected in neighboring planets, it is only on Earth that water can be found across three states of matter namely solid, water, and air.

14. Longer Days Ahead
We have approximately 24 hours in a day, but it is expected that after about 250 million years, a day will last 1.5 hours longer due to the slower rotation of the Earth around its axis.

15. The Brightest of them All
Although it is known that Venus is the brightest celestial body in the sky, Earth is comparatively brighter when observed from outer space. The factor which makes our planet the brightest among all the planets of the Milky Way is water.

16. The Earth is Moving
Pressure being released from the inner core and the constantly moving tectonic plates result in almost 1 million earthquakes per year; majority of which are never felt or recorded even by seismometers.

17. The Speed of Light
It takes exactly about 8 minutes and 20 seconds for sunlight to reach the earth. This means that the heat and light that we see and feel on a warm, sunny day is energy emitted by the sun from 8 minutes past.

18. Speeds of Earth
The Earth’s surface rotates on its axis at 1,000 miles per hour. Consequently, the planet travels through space at 66,700 miles per hour. But how come we do not feel that our planet is moving at a dizzying rate?

This is due to the fact that the Earth is rotating at a constant speed and is partly due to the gravitational pull of Earth.

19. Four Seasons
The occurrence of 4 seasons is not in any way related to the distance of the Earth from the Sun, but rather due to the way the planet is tilted on its axis. The obliquity or Earth’s tilt is currently at 23.4 degrees and is expected to change slightly over time.

20. First Photo Opportunity
From an altitude of 65 miles, the first photo of the Earth from space was taken using a 35-millimeter motion picture camera that was carried by Sputnik 2. It was in 1946 that the first discernible photo was made possible by a camera developed by the engineer, Clyde Holliday.

The first full face and colored portrait of Earth was later taken from the DODGE satellite in 1967.

21. Earth’s Core
The core of the Earth can be found 3,700 miles down towards its center. The inner core is made up of a solid iron-nickel allow.

22. Gravity Difference
The pull of gravity differs all over the globe, depending on your distance from the earth’s core.

This means that due to the gravitational pull, you are technically lighter or heavier in certain locations in the globe, though you’ll never feel it.

23. Water Percentages
97% of water on Earth can be found in the oceans, while only 3% of water can be found in fresh water reservoirs and fresh water supply.

24. A satellite and Companions
The Moon is not the only celestial body that rotates around our planet. Asteroids 3753 Cruithne and 2002 AA29 are also known to orbit the planet as well.

25. Our only home
Although space missions are being deployed in outer space for the past few decades, these programs are primarily programmed to look for extraterrestrial life and space research. There are still no possibilities of life even with the nearest planetary body, Mars.

For now, the Earth is the only habitable place in the Universe. For now.

These amazing facts about the world can definitely help humans to further participate in the cause of saving Mother Earth.

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