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Messages - sadia.ameen

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Skin / Re: রোদে পুড়বে না ত্বক
« on: July 10, 2013, 10:55:50 AM »
Helpful post for this season. Thank You.

Parents Guidance / Re: Late nights ‘sap children’s brain power’
« on: July 10, 2013, 10:52:39 AM »
Thanks for such a informative post.

Dr. Michael Jensen, a professor of medicine at the Mayo Clinic, said dieters typically end up with similar weight loss in the long run whether they use extreme calorie restriction or more moderately restricted diets.

"You're going to end up in the same place (weight-wise), so why take the risk of ending up in the hospital with a gall bladder problem just to lose weight faster?" said Jensen, who was not part of the study.

Gallstones affect as many as 20 million people in the US.

Dr. Kari Johansson, the lead author of the study and a researcher at the Karolinska Institute in Sweden, said quick weight loss from very low calorie diets is thought to impact the salt and cholesterol contents of bile and the emptying of the gallbladder, both of which can contribute to gallstones.

To see how these diets affect gallstone risk in a real-world setting, Johansson and her colleagues collected information on customers' progress from a weight loss company in Sweden called Intrim.

Some of the study authors have worked for the company or serve on its scientific advisory board.

Their study included 6,640 dieters, half of whom went on a crash diet and the other half of whom went on a low calorie diet.

The crash diet involved liquid meals of just 500 calories a day for six to 10 weeks, followed by the gradual introduction of normal food, and then nine months of a weight maintenance regime of exercise and healthy eating.

The other dieters ate 1,200 to 1,500 calories a day, including two liquid meals, for three months, followed by the nine month weight maintenance period.

Health coaches at Intrim collected weight and body size information, which the researchers linked to a national health database that has records on gallstone treatments.

After three months in the weight loss program, the crash dieters lost about 30 pounds, compared to roughly 17 pounds lost among people on the low calorie diet.

One year out from the start of the diet, the extremely low calorie group had lost an average of 24.5 pounds, while the other group lost about 18 pounds.

Among those on the crash diet, 48 people developed gallstones requiring hospital treatment, and 16 people in the other group developed gallstones, Johansson and her colleagues report in the International Journal of Obesity.

They could not determine why gallstones were more common among people in the extremely low calorie group.

"One contributing factor was that they lost more weight during follow-up... another may be that they may have had a lower fat intake," Johansson said in an email to Reuters Health.

Jensen said people should have doctors supervise their health when going on a very low calorie diet, something that is recommended in the US.

"They should be informed about the risk/benefit tradeoff compared to using the less intensive, but also less effective, (low calorie diet) alternative," Johansson said.

Health Tips / Active brain 'keeps dementia at bay
« on: July 08, 2013, 12:35:37 PM »
Keeping mentally active by reading books or writing letters helps protect the brain in old age, a study suggests.

A lifetime of mental challenges leads to slower cognitive decline after factoring out dementia's impact on the brain, US researchers say.

The study, published in Neurology, adds weight to the idea that dementia onset can be delayed by lifestyle factors.

An Alzheimer's charity said the best way to lower dementia risk was to eat a balanced diet, exercise and stay slim.

In a US study, 294 people over the age of 55 were given tests that measured memory and thinking, every year for about six years until their deaths.

They also answered a questionnaire about whether they read books, wrote letters and took part in other activities linked to mental stimulation during childhood, adolescence, middle age, and in later life.

After death, their brains were examined for evidence of the physical signs of dementia, such as brain lesions and plaques.

The study found that after factoring out the impact of those signs, those who had a record of keeping the brain busy had a rate of cognitive decline estimated at 15% slower than those who did not.

Dr Robert Wilson, of Rush University Medical Center in Chicago, who led the study, said the research suggested exercising the brain across a lifetime was important for brain health in old age.

He told BBC News: "The brain that we have in old age depends in part on what we habitually ask it to do in life.

"What you do during your lifetime has a great impact on the likelihood these age-related diseases are going to be expressed."
Cognitive reserve

Dementia exacts a heavy toll on society, with more than 820,000 people in the UK alone currently living with the condition.

Commenting on the study, Dr Simon Ridley, head of research at Alzheimer's Research UK, said there was increasing evidence mental activity may help protect against cognitive decline. But the underlying reasons for this remained unclear.

"By examining donated brain tissue, this study has shed more light on this complex question, and the results lend weight to the theory that mental activity may provide a level of 'cognitive reserve', helping the brain resist some of the damage from diseases such as Alzheimer's," he said.

Dr James Pickett, head of research at the Alzheimer's Society, added: "More research and bigger studies are needed, but in the meantime reading more and doing crosswords can be enjoyable and certainly won't do you any harm.

"The best way to reduce your risk of developing dementia is to eat a balanced diet, exercise regularly and maintain a healthy weight."

Health Tips / Don't ignore persistent cough
« on: July 08, 2013, 12:32:48 PM »
Anyone with a cough that has lasted for three weeks or more should see a doctor, according to a campaign to reduce deaths from lung cancer.

England's biggest cancer killer, it claims 28,000 lives a year, partly because it is often diagnosed too late.

The main symptom is a chronic cough - although most instances of this will not be due to cancer.

The Be Clear on Cancer lung cancer campaign is aimed at people over the age of 50, as they are most at risk.

Other symptoms of lung cancer include:

    a cough that has got worse or changes
    repeated chest infections
    coughing up blood
    feeling more tired than usual for some time
    losing weight for no obvious reason
    an ache or pain in your chest or shoulder that has lasted some time

Health Secretary Jeremy Hunt said: "More people die from lung cancer than any other cancer in England, but many people don't know the signs and symptoms that could save their lives.

"The message from this campaign is clear - if you have a persistent cough, go and see your doctor. The earlier lung cancer is diagnosed, the more likely that treatment will be successful."

Story, Article & Poetry / A SENSE OF A GOOSE
« on: July 08, 2013, 12:28:52 PM »
Next autumn, when you see geese heading south for the winter, flying in a “V” formation, you
might consider what science has discovered as to why they fly that way. As each bird flaps its wings,
it creates uplift for the bird immediately following. By flying in a “V” formation, the whole flock
adds at least 71 percent greater flying range than if each bird flew on its own.
People who share a common direction and sense of community can get
where they are going more quickly and easily, because they are traveling
on the thrust of one another.
When a goose falls out of formation, it suddenly feels the drag and
resistance of trying to go it alone and quickly gets back into formation to
take advantage of the lifting power of the bird in front. If we have the
sense of a goose, we will stay in formation with those people who are heading the same way we are.
When the head goose gets tired, it rotates back in the wing and another goose flies point.
It is sensible to take turns doing demanding jobs, whether with people or with geese flying south.
Geese honk from behind to encourage those up front to keep up their speed.
What message do we give when we honk from behind?
Finally - and this is important - when a goose gets sick or is wounded by gunshot, and falls out of
the formation, two other geese fall out with that goose and follow it down to lend help and
protection. They stay with the fallen goose until it is able to fly or until it dies; and only then do
they launch out on their own, or with another formation to catch up with their own group.
If we have the sense of a goose, we will stand by each other like that.

Story, Article & Poetry / MAKING A DIFFERENCE
« on: July 08, 2013, 12:27:08 PM »

My friend was walking down a deserted Mexican beach at sunset. As he walked along, he began to
see another man in the distance. As he grew nearer, he noticed that the local native kept leaning
down, picking something up and throwing it out into the water. Time and again he kept hurling
things out into the ocean. As my friend approached even closer, he noticed that the man was
picking up starfish that had washed up on the beach, and, one at a time, he was throwing them
back into the water. My friend was puzzled.
He approached the man and said. “Good evening, friend. I was wondering what
you are doing.”
“I’m throwing these starfish back into the ocean. You see its low tide right now
and all of these starfish have been washed up onto the shore. If I don’t throw
them back into the sea, they’ll die up here from lack of oxygen.”
“I understand,” my friend replied, “but there must be thousands of starfish on this beach. You can’t
possibly get to all of them. There are simply too many. And don’t you realize this is probably
happening on hundreds of beaches all up and down this coast. Can’t you see that you can’t possibly
make a difference?”
The local native smiled, bent down and picked up yet another starfish, and as he threw it back into
the sea, he replied, “Made a difference to that one!”

Pharmacy / Re: New theory blames ‘gene activation’ for cancer
« on: July 08, 2013, 12:14:20 PM »
very useful link..... :D

Library of DIU / Re: Nelson Mandela’s leadership tips
« on: July 07, 2013, 10:57:34 AM »
Very useful post.

The microscopic algae Heterosigma akashiwo grows rapidly on a gas mixture that has the same carbon dioxide and nitric oxide content as emissions released from a power plant.

"The algae thrive on the gas," said Kathryn Coyne, associate professor of marine biosciences in UD's College of Earth, Ocean, and Environment. "They grow twice as fast and the cells are much larger in size compared to when growing without gas treatment."

The algae also make large amounts of carbohydrates, which can be converted into bioethanol to fuel vehicles. The findings could have industrial applications as a cost-effective way to cut greenhouse gas pollution when paired with biofuel production.

Heterosigma akashiwo is found worldwide in the natural environment. Coyne, an expert in algal blooms, discovered that the species may have a special ability to neutralize nitric oxide -- a harmful gas that poses threats to environmental and human health.

That characteristic prompted Coyne and her team to investigate whether the algae could grow on carbon dioxide without getting killed off by the high nitric oxide content in power plants' flue gas, which had foiled similar attempts by other scientists using different types of algae.

A yearlong laboratory experiment shows that Heterosigma akashiwo not only tolerates flue gas, but flourishes in its presence. The algae also do not need any additional nitrogen sources beyond nitric oxide to grow, which could reduce costs for raising algae for biofuel production.

"This alone could save up to 45 percent of the required energy input to grow algae for biofuels," Coyne said.

Funded by the Delaware Sea Grant College Program, Coyne and her collaborator, Jennifer Stewart, plan to further study how changes in conditions can enhance the growth of Heterosigma akashiwo. So far, they found a large increase in carbohydrates when grown on flue gas compared to air. They also see correlations between the levels of light given to the algae and the quantity of carbohydrates and lipids present in the organisms.

The researchers are exploring opportunities for partnerships with companies to scale up the growth process and more closely examine Heterosigma akashiwo as a biofuel producer.

The prospects could support a national focus on carbon pollution reduction following President Barack Obama's major speech this week on climate change.

"Our approach to the issue is to not just produce biofuels, but to also use this species for bioremediation of industrial flue gas to reduce harmful effects even further," Coyne said.

The concentration of nutrients in animal food products is linked to the diets of the animals reared. Conventional production methods provide mineral diet supplements, while in organic farming animals depend on the mineral content in soil, which may not be sufficient.

For this reason, researchers at the University of Santiago de Compostela compared the mineral and toxic elements of organic and conventional milk taken from over thirty farms located in the northeast of the Iberian Peninsula.

The results demonstrated that mineral element content in organic milk is low compared with conventional milk, although no differences were found in the quantity of toxic compounds such as cadmium, which were also detected in very low concentrations.

"Levels of the elements that are typically supplemented in the diets of livestock in conventional systems -- particularly iodine, copper, selenium and zinc -- are higher than those found in organic milk," Marta López, researcher at the University of Santiago de Compostela and co-author of the study, explains.

In the researcher's opinion, the fact that organic milk contains lower levels of elements such as copper and zinc is not a problem because milk is not the primary source of these elements in our diets.

"Iodine is another matter," López goes on to clarify. "The contribution of iodine to our diets in countries like Spain is covered by iodised salt; in other countries, like England, with milk. In Spain the lack of sufficient iodine in some kinds of milk is especially relevant for children, due to the importance of iodine in neurological development, but also to people with diets low in salt."

Iodine is necessary for the metabolism, especially during pregnancy and infancy. Iodine deficiency can cause scurvy, which has historically been a big problem the world over, particularly in populations at a distance from the coast, who did not eat much fish, and so milk and its derivatives were the primary source of iodine.

Science Discussion Forum / Material defies laws of Physics
« on: July 07, 2013, 10:41:28 AM »
WHEN you squeeze something, it gets smaller. Unless you’re at Argonne National Laboratory.

At the suburban Chicago laboratory, a group of scientists has seemingly defied the laws of physics and found a way to apply pressure to make a material expand instead of compress/contract.

“It’s like squeezing a stone and forming a giant sponge,” said Karena Chapman, a chemist at the US Department of Energy laboratory. “Materials are supposed to become denser and more compact under pressure. We are seeing the exact opposite. The pressure-treated material has half the density of the original state. This is counterintuitive to the laws of physics.”

Because this behaviour seems impossible, Chapman and her colleagues spent several years testing and retesting the material until they believed the unbelievable and understood how the impossible could be possible. For every experiment, they got the same mind-bending results.

“The bonds in the material completely rearrange,” Chapman said. “This just blows my mind.”

This discovery will do more than rewrite the science text books; it could double the variety of porous framework materials available for manufacturing, health care and environmental sustainability.

Scientists use these framework materials, which have sponge-like holes in their structure, to trap, store and filter materials. The shape of the sponge-like holes makes them selectable for specific molecules, allowing their use as water filters, chemical sensors and compressible storage for carbon dioxide sequestration of hydrogen fuel cells. By tailoring release rates, scientists can adapt these frameworks to deliver drugs and initiate chemical reactions for the production of everything from plastics to foods.

“This could not only open up new materials to being porous, but it could also give us access to new structures for selectability and new release rates,” said Peter Chupas, an Argonne chemist who helped discover the new materials.

The team published the details of their work in the May 22 issue of the Journal of the American Chemical Society in an article titled “Exploiting High Pressures to Generate Porosity, Polymorphism, And Lattice Expansion in the Nonporous Molecular Framework Zn(CN)2 .”

The scientists put zinc cyanide, a material used in electroplating, in a diamond-anvil cell at the Advanced Photon Source (APS) at Argonne and applied high pressures of 0.9 to 1.8 gigapascals, or about 9,000 to 18,000 times the pressure of the atmosphere at sea level. This high pressure is within the range affordably reproducible by industry for bulk storage systems. By using different fluids around the material as it was squeezed, the scientists were able to create five new phases of material, two of which retained their new porous ability at normal pressure. The type of fluid used determined the shape of the sponge-like pores. This is the first time that hydrostatic pressure has been able to make dense materials with interpenetrated atomic frameworks into novel porous materials. Several series of in situ high-pressure X-ray powder diffraction experiments were performed at the 1-BM, 11-ID-B, and 17-BM beamlines of the APS to study the material transitions.

“By applying pressure, we were able to transform a normally dense, nonporous material into a range of new porous materials that can hold twice as much stuff,” Chapman said. “This counterintuitive discovery will likely double the amount of available porous framework materials, which will greatly expand their use in pharmaceutical delivery, sequestration, material separation and catalysis.”

The scientists will continue to test the new technique on other materials.

The research is funded by the U.S. Department of Energy’s Office of Science.

Source: Science Daily

Health Tips / lower BMI target
« on: July 07, 2013, 10:36:17 AM »
The National Institute for Health and Care Excellence guidance in the UK says the Asian and other ethnic groups must be extra careful about their weight because they are prone to diseases like diabetes, reports BBC.
BMI is a way of seeing if your weight is appropriate for your height. It is calculated by taking your weight (in kilograms) and dividing it by your height (in metres) squared to give you a BMI score.
It means a 5ft 11in (1.8m) Asian man should weigh below 11st 11lb (75kg) and an Asian woman who is 5ft 3in (1.6m) should weigh less than 9st 4lb (59kg).

Health Tips / Good night’s sleep protects heart
« on: July 07, 2013, 10:34:42 AM »
Good night’s sleep protects heart

Seven or more hours’ sleep a night boosts the benefits to the heart of a healthy lifestyle, research published in the European Journal of Preventive Cardiology suggests.

Keeping mentally busy tied to less memory loss

People who spend a lot of time reading, writing and otherwise seeking and processing new information lose their thinking and memory skills more slowly as they age, a new study published in journal Neurology suggests.

Drink more water, lose more weight!

Dieters who drink more water have greater weight loss, according to a new review of several prior studies published in The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition.

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