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Bangladesh Taxes Bar Association / Trainee form
« on: November 03, 2018, 04:57:59 PM »

How to turn packed lunches into winter warmers
With a bit of home prep and an office kettle, there is a wealth of hot, healthy grub you can make at work, from noodle soups to chorizo couscous

Noodle soup in a jar. Photograph: Matt Russell for the Guardian
It has abruptly turned cold out and, just like that, not only are your socks too thin and your trousers too short, but your shop-bought BLT or leafy salad is decidedly not as warm and comforting as you need it to be. Office tea points being what they are, even a microwave might be too much to expect. But with a bowl with a lid, a bit of home prep – not more than you might for a standard, cold lunchbox – and a kettle, there is a wealth of hot grub you can make at work.
First things first, invest in a good, lidded, heatproof container. A metal camping pot, an ovenproof glass bowl, even an extra-large travel mug will do the trick.
Next, for food safety reasons, make sure anything you take to work is cool before you pack it. And, if you put it in the fridge when you get there, be sure to take it out ahead of time to come back up to room temperature before you use it. Any modicum of comfort from a swig of hot soup will be ruined if you chew on something cold.
Last, be bold and try new things. The recipes below are suggestions; they can be easily modified to suit what is in your fridge and store cupboard (they also have been given a smell factor, in case you are worried you might upset your colleagues). Quickly rehydrated noodles sit well in almost any soup, as does a bowlful of cooked pasta, rice or other grain. And soup bases come in many stripes: miso paste goes just as well with chilli (harissa, gochujang, sriracha, hot sauce, aleppo chilli flakes) as it does with tahini. The soft-boiled onsen tamago egg technique here is Japanese, but that doesn’t mean it won’t work in all sorts of other contexts: as an improvised eggs benedict, atop the bowl of chorizo couscous or indeed any of the soups and soup noodle bowlfuls below.
It’s best to let each bowlful sit a few minutes before eating, to allow the flavours to meld. And remember that garnishes, as always, are your friend: a slow-cooked stew is obviously going to be more satisfying than something rustled up in minutes at the office sink, but a sprinkling of crunch, spice or zest will go a long way to making up for what is lost in the haste. And besides, isn’t eating anything warm in the cold always a joy?
Cheat’s version of Ottolenghi’s chorizo and fennel couscous
At home, fry in olive oil 100g chorizo, 1 shallot, sliced, and ¼ bulb fennel, thinly sliced, with a pinch each of dried thyme and paprika, the zest of ¼ orange, one minced garlic clove and some fennel seeds; season with salt and pepper. Add in a handful of cherry tomatoes and cook until soft. Decant to a Tupperware. At work, mix ½ chicken stock cube with 240ml of hot water and pour over 180g of dried couscous, cover immediately and leave for five minutes until absorbed. Mix into the chorizo mix.
Smell factor: 5/10
Leek and Marmite soup
Caroline Craig and Sophie Missing, queens of the tasty lunch box, suggest frying a very finely sliced leek in olive oil with a sprig of rosemary and a crushed garlic clove, until soft and slightly caramelised. Decant into a Tupperware. At lunch, mix ½ chicken stock cube and ½ tsp Marmite into 500ml boiling water and pour over the leeks. Cover for five minutes then eat with a buttered crusty roll for dunking.
Smell factor: 4/10
Korean soup base
At home, fry up thinly sliced bacon, chicken or beef, or a serving of cubed semi-hard tofu, with one clove of garlic and one small knob of ginger, both minced, one dollop of gochujang chilli paste, some sesame oil and a dollop of miso, and adjust the flavour with soy sauce and sugar. Decant to a Tupperware and top with some parboiled sliced veg (green beans, asparagus, broccoli florets, carrot) and some finely sliced spring onion. At work, add 400ml boiling water and mix well.
Smell factor: 5/10
Pack a serving of steamed short-grain rice with shredded salmon (grilled or poached) or tofu with steamed veg, and season with salt and soy sauce to taste. Top with a small handful of crushed Japanese rice crackers, a salted pickled umeboshi plum and a large pinch of finely sliced nori seaweed. At work, pour a mugful of green tea over the mix.
Smell factor: 3/10
Miso soup
At home, in a heatproof lidded jar, place 1 tbsp miso (look for brands with added dashi stock), a handful of spinach, a large pinch of beansprouts, some thinly sliced deep-fried tofu or cubed fresh tofu and ½ spring onion, finely sliced. At work, add a cup of boiling water and stir well to dissolve the miso.
Smell factor: 2/10
Chilli and miso noodle soup
Anna Jones combines miso and brown rice vermicelli in a quick spicy bowlful: place one nest of rice vermicelli in a bowlful of boiling water for three minutes then drain and place in a Tupperware with a knob of ginger, minced, 1 tbsp white miso paste, 1 tsp harissa and some tamari. Top with spring onion, carrot, sugar snap peas, kale and a red chilli, all finely sliced, and scatter with toasted sesame seeds. At work, boil the kettle and pour over enough water to cover everything, mix well and squeeze half a lime over to finish.
Smell factor: 2/10
Cheat’s pho
At home fry up a serving of thinly sliced chicken with some thinly sliced onion and daikon, one small knob of ginger, minced, a couple each of cloves and star anise and a pinch of cinnamon, and season with sugar, fish sauce and salt to taste. Decant to a Tupperware and top with bird’s eye chilli, red onion and spring onion, all finely sliced, some fresh coriander leaves and a twist of black pepper. At work, place 75g of dry flat pho noodles in a bowlful of boiling water and cover until tender – about 10 minutes – then drain and add to your Tupperware. Dissolve ½ chicken stock cube in 500ml water in a mug, pour over everything and mix well. Squeeze over ½ lime to finish.
Smell factor: 7/10 (it’s the fish sauce)
Soft-boiled eggs
At home, combine 60ml dashi fish or kelp stock with ½ tbsp mirin and 1½ tbsp soy sauce, and bring to the boil. Remove from the heat, add a pinch of bonito fish flakes (optional) and leave for one minute. Decant ¼ of this sauce (the rest will keep for five days in the fridge) into a small lidded jar, with half a spring onion, finely sliced. At work, an hour before lunchtime, place two eggs in a teapot, fill with boiling water and put the lid on, then wrap the teapot snugly in a tea towel. After an hour, remove the eggs and gently crack open, slide them into a bowl, and pour the sauce over.
Smell factor: 5/10

Can a Small Startup Take on the Legal Research Goliaths?

A recent study comparing legal research platforms found that attorneys using Casetext’s artificial intelligence (A.I.) enhanced research, CARA A.I., finished their research 24.5% faster, required 4.4 times fewer searches to accomplish the same research task, and rated the cases they found 20.8% more relevant than those found on a legacy research tool.
For us, the study validated empirically what we’ve been hearing anecdotally since introducing CARA A.I. two years ago: researchers using artificial intelligence on Casetext have a serious edge over those using older approaches.
But the study raises a bigger question. For decades, two giant companies have dominated legal research. With results this stark, is it possible for us, a newer, smaller company taking a new approach, to credibly challenge the status quo—to play David to their Goliath?
We are a newer and smaller company taking on multibillion-dollar goliaths—how can we compete?
We get asked this question all the time. How can we possibly take on the goliaths in the industry?
We know we’re not one of the “big guys.” We haven’t been around since the 1860s. We’re smaller—by over 1,000 employees. You probably didn’t learn about us in law school.
Yet we believe that being smaller and younger is one of our strengths. When you’re smaller, you try harder—or else. We know we’re the underdog; David, going up against Goliath. We know we’ll be smashed if we don’t outdo, outwork, and outserve.
As a result, you’ll never feel like you’re using decades-old technology on Casetext. We can’t afford to offer anything but the cutting-edge.
That’s why we introduced CARA A.I. In the most recent comparison study referenced above, researchers using this technology are 24.5% faster, only needed an average of 1.5 searches to find relevant cases instead of 6.6 on the legacy provider, rated the cases found 20.8% more relevant. The vast majority of participants (75%) preferred the research experience using CARA A.I. over the researching on the legacy provider. The average attorney spends between 16% and 35% of their time doing research, so can expect to save 132 to 210 hours every year while finding dramatically better results. (Perhaps because these results were so stark, the legacy provider set its PR machinery into action to bury the study, only to make the story and intrigue around it even bigger.)
And because we’re newer, we know we must do as well or better as the other guys in functionality and content, including cases, statutes, and regulations. Fast, accurate search. Red flags on cases. Copy with a cite. Over 500,000 articles written by attorneys on every topic of law. Two-column PDFs. The key passages in cases highlighted for you. Briefs.
It’s nice not to work with a company that’s not a monopoly.
The other guys have had a near-monopoly for decades. High prices, complex contracts, NDAs, multi-year lock-ins, out-of-plan charges…
We’re the new guys, and we couldn’t do all that even if we wanted to (and we don’t want to).
On Casetext, our plan is transparent, all-inclusive, and at an unbeatable price—just $65 a month for an annual subscription, $89 for month-to-month. No exceptions, gotchas, exclusions, or out-of-plan fees.
We can’t hide behind an army of slick salespeople; the product needs to speak for itself. That’s why we have a free 14-day trial you can sign up for yourself online.
And we’re not a mega-company, so we get to do customer service right. Need training? You’ll get one from a Casetext specialist for free, and can book a time on our calendar whenever works best for you. Have a question? Start a chat on any page of the site. Have a request for a feature or to expand our content database? Let us impress you with how quickly we add it.

Three Ways Lawyers Can Provide Better Client Service With Tech

According to the 2018 Legal Trends Report, what lawyers think their clients want doesn’t always line up with what clients actually want.
For example, 70% of consumers surveyed wanted to tell their lawyer about the details or facts of a situation in person, but but the majority of lawyers thought their clients preferred to do this over the phone or via email.
Taking a client-centered approach and meeting client expectations can help your firm stand out, but this doesn’t always mean simply aligning your firm to what clients say they want: Technology can bring plenty of benefits that your clients may not know about, and by introducing your clients to new technologies, you may improve their overall client experience. Per the Legal Trends Report:
“Clients may be the ones to set expectations for law firms, but lawyers are ultimately responsible for delivering on those expectations by finding solutions that are in the best interest of both the client and the firm. This may include educating clients on the benefits of new technologies—especially if they ensure better value and reduce wasted time for everyone.”
Here are three areas where lawyers can educate their clients on the benefits of new technologies to shift expectations, make operations more efficient, and create a better client experience.
1. Appointment scheduling: Use an online tool
59% of consumers surveyed for the Legal Trends Report preferred scheduling appointments over the phone, but this method is often more time consuming than clients may think. Leaving messages, remembering to follow-up, and taking calls at awkward times all adds up to a lot of unnecessary back and forth.
With self-scheduling tools, your firm can cut down on the time spent playing phone tag, and your clients can have a simpler experience scheduling appointments as well! For example, Jennifer Reynolds of Fresh Legal uses Acuity Scheduling during the client intake process to make it easy for potential clients to schedule their initial consults.
2. Document signing: Use e-signatures
When it comes to legal documents, 64% of consumers surveyed for the report said they’d prefer signing and viewing documents in person.
Of course, in some cases an in-person (or video) meeting may make more sense: Your client may have questions about their document, and may be looking for clarity or reassurance as to what everything means. However, it’s hard to believe that anyone would prefer taking time out of their workday to physically meet their lawyer to sign a document if they knew there was another option available.
With e-signatures, clients can simply click a link on their mobile phone or computer, draw or type in their signature, and click a button to submit the signed copy back to the firm. Plenty of tools, including DocuSign and RightSignature, will give your firm the ability to offer e-signatures, removing travel time and the time needed to set up meetings for both you and your clients.
3. Lawyer-client interactions: Meet over video
According to the Legal Trends Report, few clients say they’d prefer to interact with their lawyers over video, whether they’re talking about the legal aspects of their case, getting key updates, or something else.
However, depending on your practice area, meeting clients via Skype or Google Hangouts could be an efficient means of giving your clients face time while allowing you both to avoid time spent on transit or in traffic.
For example, Sound Immigration offers clients the option to meet via Skype or video conference if they can’t make it into the office.
By experimenting with new technologies and communicating the benefits of options like video meetings and self-scheduling tools to your clients, you’ll likely end up with happier clients and a more efficient law firm.

Procedural laws / Supreme Court verdict on Aadhaar ‘historic’.
« on: September 27, 2018, 12:25:27 PM »
Supreme Court verdict on Aadhaar ‘historic’.
Finance minister Arun Jaitley said on Wednesday that the Supreme Court ruling on Aadhaar was “historic” as the concept of an unique identity number was accepted. He said Aadhaar had helped the government to save over Rs 90,000 crores every year with the targeted delivery of government services.
The finance minister said while he had not read the full judgment, his understanding was that the Supreme Court had barred the use of Aadhaar by private entities like mobile phone firms in the absence of legislative backing for that.
On the need for Aadhaar’s linking with bank accounts and mobile phone connections after the court order, Mr Jaitley said the question was being asked without a full reading the judgment. “So let us first read the judgment. There are 2-3 prohibited areas. Are they because they are totally prohibited, or are they because they need legal backing. So my answer in general, the generic answer will depend on what is the rationale, for instance, on these private entities, it needs to be backed by law. That’s my understanding. I still have a detailed reading of the judgment to do.” He added: “Therefore, the prohibited areas ... do not assume ... are perpetually prohibited, they could be procedurally prohibited or they could be prohibited as such,” he said.
The minister said the whole concept of unique identity number that had been accepted after judicial review is an extremely welcome decision. He said the court had also upheld the Aadhaar legislation, that mandated assigning an unique identification number of Indian citizens, was a money bill. “You cannot defy technology. You cannot ignore it,” he added.
Asserting that the Supreme Court’s Aadhaar ruling was a “victory of good governance, empowerment of ordinary people and efficient delivery of public services to the people of India”, the BJP claimed while under the UPA Aadhaar was “Niradhar” and had no purpose, the Narendra Modi government gave it “strong legal backing and integrated it in service delivery”. The BJp said the court’s decision was a “strong validation of Aadhaar as an instrument of service delivery” and gives a further impetus to empowering the poor by ensuring that they get their rights.
“Aadhaar under UPA government was Niradhar and had no purpose. The UPA spent thousands of crores to enrol people without any law or scrutiny. The Modi government gave it a strong legal backing and integrated it in service delivery. This ensured a saving of `90,000 crores and benefited the poor... The Congress, being the fountainhead of middlemen and corruption, tried every trick to fight and defeat Aadhaar, politically and legally.
They tried to mislead the people on various grounds, including scare-mongering on privacy. Today they stand exposed and defeated,” said BJP president Amit Shah.

Demands for rape victims' mobile phone data hampering investigations
Prosecutors closing a record number of cases before charging decisions amid row over disclosure of evidence. Rape prosecutions have plummeted by almost a quarter in a year as police admit vast quantities of mobile phone data are slowing down investigations and causing victims to drop out.
New figures released by the Crown Prosecution Service (CPS) show a 23 per cent year-on-year drop in the number of rape suspects prosecuted in 2017-18, despite the number of rapes recorded by police increasing by 31 per cent across England and Wales in the same period.
It comes after a scandal over failures to disclose crucial evidence, including messages and mobile phone pictures, which caused a series of rape trials to collapse.
Lawyers are concerned that the ensuing outrage caused prosecutors to “scurry too far in the opposite direction” and demand phone records and details of victims’ histories and personal lives before proceeding with cases.
Under half of the cases referred to prosecutors by police (47 per cent) were taken forward in the year, down from 55 per cent the year before, and a record number of referrals were dismissed ahead of a formal charging decision.
More than a fifth of rape referrals were “administratively finalised” by the CPS, up from 12 per cent the year before, meaning they were closed without action against the suspects.
The move is taken when police ask for advice but do not submit a full file for a charging decision, or when prosecutors request more information or evidence but officers do not supply it by their deadline.
Metropolitan Police assistant commissioner Martin Hewitt, the National Police Chiefs’ Council lead for rape, said the “increasing amount of digital material on a variety of devices that needs to be analysed” was having an impact.
“This includes obtaining material held by third parties [such as US-based social media companies] and the subsequent disclosure of what is considered relevant material,” he added. “This can take many months and in some cases impact on the participation of complainants.
“We continue to work closely with the CPS to identity and address the factors behind the drop in referrals.”
It now takes an average of 78 days to charge a suspected rapist after the victim reports, up from 63 in 2016-17, and then another 11 months for the case to conclude.
Dame Vera Baird QC, the Association of Police and Crime Commissioners’ leader for victims, said the statistics showed the CPS was “refusing to charge without more information” that could allow rape claims to be undermined in court.
“The CPS often requires access to tracts of intimate personal and confidential material about complainants and won’t charge unless it is supplied, even if the police are satisfied that it contains nothing relevant to defence or prosecution,” she added.
“There is no excuse for the CPS to arbitrarily decide not to pursue crimes which may have seriously injured people in order to get their conviction figures up … these figures are another wakeup call that we need to do more to protect the rights of victims of sexual offences through the judicial process.”
The CPS put the increase in “administratively finalised” cases down to an increase in investigative advice given to police before they submit a full file for a formal charging decision.
A spokesperson said: “Rape is one of the most complex crimes the CPS deals with and prosecutors are given ongoing training to suppohttps
:// decision making in challenging cases.

Women / Nine activists defending the Earth from violent assault
« on: September 23, 2018, 03:21:18 PM »
Individually, they are stories of courage and tragedy. Together, they tell a tale of a natural world under ever more violent assault.
The portraits in this series are of nine people who are risking their lives to defend the land and environment in some of the planet’s most remote or conflict-riven regions.
'God wants you to act on what's in front of you': enforcing conservation law in the Coral Triangle
 From the Coral Triangle and the Sierra Madre to the Amazon and the Western African Savannah, they are caught up in struggles against illegal fishing, industrial farming, poachers, polluters and miners.
The majority have seen colleagues, family or friends murdered or arrested. Two have bodyguards. Several say they wake up each day thankful to be alive. They are often criminalised, labelled terrorists or portrayed by their enemies as anti-development. All are determined to carry on their struggles despite almost ever-present and growing risks.

Companies of all sizes need to ensure their staff are well-equipped to counter the threat of cyber attack
Last year, almost half of British businesses were targeted by cybercriminals – with the figure almost doubling from 24pc to 46pc between 2016 and 2017, according to recent government figures.
But there’s one common factor that unites many businesses that have fallen prey to cybercriminals: a lack of preparation. Analysis by GCHQ and the National Cyber Security Centre (NCSC) shows that the vast majority of successful cyberattacks exploit basic weaknesses in IT.
Kevin Chapman, senior vice president and general manager of Avast’s small business unit, says many businesses still make things too easy for cybercriminals by making basic mistakes. “Cybercriminals are no longer solo acts trying to hack into a company or government system for a challenge,” he says. “Cybercrime is becoming increasingly professionalised.
“One in three security breaches in UK small businesses start with human error; this shows that workers aren’t getting the training they need.”
In other words, every workforce should receive adequate support when using the necessary business systems and processes, to make sure they feel comfortable using it securely.
Businesses can help their staff by ensuring they have the basics in place – as set out in the Government’s Cyber Security: Small Business Guide. However most small businesses mistakenly think that hackers will not target them, according to research by analyst KPMG, with 51pc believing they won’t be targeted.
This is, however, a myth. In fact, hackers now target small businesses as a matter of choice, says John Davies, director at cybersecurity company Pervade Software and chairman of the South Wales Cyber Security Cluster.
Mr Davies says: “Recently we have seen a huge rise in extortion attacks being aimed at smaller companies. It is far easier to get a thousand small businesses to pay £100 than it is to get a large corporate to pay off a £100,000 blackmail threat.
Key measures: setting up secure systems is one of the five basics of Cyber Essentials CREDIT: GETTY
“These attacks are indiscriminate. The best possible advice to small businesses is to prepare. Thankfully, this has been made easier through the availability of a best-practice framework, developed in the UK and readily available for all companies.
“The Government’s Cyber Essentials scheme has been designed to prepare businesses for the most common cyber threats and serve as a first step, along with the Small Business Guide, to improving cybersecurity awareness.”
Simple steps
The Cyber Essentials scheme – available for all organisations, including businesses, charities and schools – suggests five basic steps: boundary firewalls, setting up systems securely, restricting access, malware protection and patch management.
There are also several online courses that businesses can offer staff, offering tailored training according to their expertise – whether they’re HR professionals or accountants.
Since launch in 2014, more than 10,000 certificates have been awarded to companies signing up for the Cyber Essentials scheme, including household names such as Barclays and Vodafone.
 “Cybersecurity can feel like a daunting challenge, but a few easy and inexpensive steps can protect from the most basic cybersecurity threats,” says Ciaran Martin, chief executive of the NCSC. “Following these steps could save time, money and even your business’s reputation.”
It’s also important that all workers are aware that cybersecurity is part of their jobs, according to Cath Goulding, head of IT security at Nominet. She says: “The main challenge is to get staff to understand that information security is everybody’s responsibility – not just that of the IT team.”
Ms Goulding personally inducts every new employee and maintains league tables between departments, rating them for good security practice. “You must engage staff, and that means going beyond PowerPoint presentations and tick-box exercises,” she says.
“Having a strong culture of security means that staff will be more vigilant, and will be less likely to fall for social engineering tricks. Without this culture, any business can become vulnerable.”
Practical knowledge
John Shaw, vice president of product management at Sophos, says hands-on training is a good way to make the reality of cybercrime even more “real” to employees – while also testing how they respond to threats.
Such training should, of course, occur in conjunction with preventative measures such as implementing anti-spoofing controls and filters, and protecting accounts with two-factor authentication; the NCSC details some useful tips. But engaging training can help bring these issues to life.
Early learning: to really embed cyberawareness in businesses, it’s important to educate young people as well CREDIT: GETTY
Mr Shaw says: “Businesses and schools are starting to run simulated ‘phishing’ campaigns by sending convincing-looking emails that get users to reveal passwords, bank details and so on. The IT team can let the users know when they have been tricked and train them how to avoid this in future.”
This could form part of a wider strategy to tackle phishing, based on the latest government anti-phishing guidance.
The fact that schools are taking part in these initiatives is significant; to really embed cyberawareness in businesses, it’s important to educate young people as well. The Government’s pioneering Cyber Discovery resource was set up with this in mind, with the aim of developing the next generation of cybersecurity talent.
With a range of online games and tutorials, the scheme has already received more than 22,000 applications from young people who want to develop cutting-edge cybersecurity skills.
There is no single way to make sure we will have the skills we’ll need in the future, but building awareness is an important starting point if we are to tackle the growing threat of cybercrime.

Johnson & Johnson was accused of failing to warn consumers about cancer risks associated with its baby and body powders. Johnson & Johnson was ordered Thursday to pay $4.69 billion to 22 women and their families who had claimed that asbestos in the company’s talcum powder products caused them to develop ovarian cancer.
A jury in a Missouri circuit court awarded $4.14 billion in punitive damages and $550 million in compensatory damages to the women, who had accused the company of failing to warn them about cancer risks associated with its baby and body powders.
Johnson & Johnson, the maker of Johnson’s Baby Powder, said it was “deeply disappointed” in the verdict and planned to appeal. The company is facing more than 9,000 plaintiffs in cases involving body powders with talc, according to a regulatory document filed this spring.
After a six-week trial, the jury in St. Louis deliberated over the compensatory damages for eight hours but decided on the punitive damages in roughly 45 minutes, said Mark Lanier, a lawyer for the women.

Six of the women have died; almost all of the rest, along with friends and relatives, were in the courtroom on Thursday. One of the plaintiffs is undergoing chemotherapy and was too ill to attend, Mr. Lanier said.
“There were people crying, people hugging,” he added. “It’s been quite an emotional scene.”
Mr. Lanier said Johnson & Johnson had spent 40 years covering up evidence of asbestos in some of its talcum-based products and should mark those products with warning labels or focus on powders made with cornstarch.
The punitive damages are among the largest ever awarded in a product liability case, he said. Shares of Johnson & Johnson fell 1.4 percent in early trading Friday.
Johnson & Johnson called the verdict “the product of a fundamentally unfair process” that combined 22 women with few connections to Missouri into a single group of plaintiffs in St. Louis.
The company “remains confident that its products do not contain asbestos and do not cause ovarian cancer and intends to pursue all available appellate remedies,” it said in a statement.
The company has said concerns about talc’s being linked to cancer are based on inconclusive research.
Asbestos is a carcinogen that sometimes appears in natural talc but was stripped from commercial talc products in the 1970s, according to the American Cancer Society.
And according to the National Cancer Institute, claims that talc used for feminine hygiene purposes can be absorbed by the reproductive system and cause inflammation in the ovaries are not supported by “the weight of evidence.”
Plaintiffs in talc cases have approached litigation in smaller groupsinstead of suing Johnson & Johnson en masse. The risky strategy allows earlier plaintiffs to send signals about legal tactics and their award amounts to women who bring cases later.
Suing in clusters also maximizes the emotional effect of the women’s stories on juries, Mr. Lanier said.
“It’s easier to get justice in small groups,” he said. “In small groups, people have names, but in large groups, they’re numbers.”
The first talc trial was in 2013 in Federal District Court in South Dakota. A jury found Johnson & Johnson negligent but did not award damages to the plaintiff. Several other cases have involved sizable damages, including a $417 million verdict reached by jurors in Los Angeles County Superior Court last year.
The plaintiff in the Los Angeles case has since died, and the verdict was overturned and a new trial granted.
Johnson & Johnson, which has successfully appealed a number of talc cases, said in its statement on Thursday that “the multiple errors present in this trial were worse than those in the prior trials which have been reversed.”

Cuba will officially recognise private property for the first time under a new constitution that features a number of far-reaching changes, state media say.
Property sales were banned after Fidel Castro came to power in 1959, but permitted after a law change in 2011.
The communist-run state's new constitution will reaffirm that central planning and state enterprise are key to the economy.
It is expected to be approved by a vote at the national assembly next week.
The draft constitution would then be put to a popular referendum for final approval later this year.
If it is passed it will replace the existing constitution which was approved by the Communist Party in 1976.
Under the proposed reforms the party will remain as Cuba's dominant political force, the Granma newspaper reports.
But presidents will be limited to serving two consecutive five-year terms and political power will be divided between the president and a prime minister.
It will ban discrimination based on gender, ethnic origin or disability. LGBT groups are hopeful it will also legalise same-sex marriage.
Since 2010, Cuba has undergone a series of market reforms aimed at boosting the island's economy.
The national assembly proposed a number of constitutional reforms last month - including presidential term limits and the legalisation of same-sex marriage - as the country moves to decide its political future.will see throughned reforms
The last constitutional reform in 2002 decreed that the socialist character of the political system in Cuba was "irrevocable".
The intention of the proposed reforms is to constitutionally formalise the island's economic and social opening-up while maintaining this "irrevocable" socialist system.
President Miguel Díaz-Canel announced last month that former President Raúl Castro will lead the potential reforms.
Mr Díaz-Canel took over from Mr Castro as the country's leader in April.
The Castro brothers, first Fidel and them Raul, ruled the country between 1959 and 2018.

If a brain can be caught lying, should we admit that evidence to court? Here's what legal experts think
Using mind reading technologies in court could become common practice
Functional magnetic resonance imaging could reveal whether someone knows something they're not telling
A man is charged with stealing a very distinctive blue diamond. The man claims never to have seen the diamond before. An expert is called to testify whether the brain responses exhibited by this man indicate he has seen the diamond before. The question is – should this information be used in court?
Courts are reluctant to admit evidence where there is considerable debate over the interpretation of scientific findings. But a recent study from researchers in the US has noted that the accuracy of such “mind reading” technology is improving.
There are various methods of detecting false statements or concealed knowledge, which vary greatly. For example, traditional “lie detection” relies on measuring physiological reactions such as heart rate, blood pressure, pupil dilation and skin sweat response to direct questions, such as “did you kill your wife?” Alternatively, a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) approach uses brain scans to identify a brain signature for lying.
However, the technology considered by the US researchers, known as “brain fingerprinting”, “guilty knowledge tests” or “concealed information tests”, differs from standard lie detection because it claims to reveal the fingerprint of knowledge stored in the brain. For example, in the case of the hypothetical blue diamond, knowledge of what type of diamond was stolen, where it was stolen, and what type of tools were used to effect the theft.
This technique gathers electrical signals within the brain through the scalp by electroencephalography (EEG), signals which indicate brain responses. Known as the P300 signal, those responses to questions or visual stimuli are assessed for signs that the individual recognises certain pieces of information. The process includes some questions that are neutral in content and used as controls, while others probe for knowledge of facts related to the offence.
The P300 response typically occurs some 300 to 800 milliseconds after the stimulus, and it is said that those tested will react to the stimulus before they are able to conceal their response. If the probes sufficiently narrow the focus to knowledge that only the perpetrator of the crime could possess, then the test is said to be “accurate” in revealing this concealed knowledge. Proponents of the use of this technology argue that this gives much stronger evidence than is possible to get through human assessment.
Assuming this technology might be capable of showing that someone has hidden knowledge of events relevant to a crime, should we be concerned about its use?
Potential for prejudice
Evidence of this sort has not yet been accepted by the English courts, and possibly never will be. But similar evidence has been admitted in other jurisdictions, including India.
In the Indian case of Aditi Sharma, the court heard evidence that her brain responses implicated her in her former fiancé’s murder. After investigators read statements related and unrelated to the offence, they claimed her responses indicated experiential knowledge of planning to poison him with arsenic, and of buying arsenic with which to carry out the murder. The case generated much discussion, and while she was initially convicted, this was later overturned.
However, the Indian Supreme Court has not ruled out the possibility of such evidence being used if the person being tested freely consents. We should not forget that people may knowingly conceal knowledge of facts relevant to a crime for all sorts of reasons, such as protecting other people or hiding illicit relationships. These reasons for hiding knowledge may have nothing to do with the crime. You could have knowledge relevant to a crime but be totally innocent of that crime. The test is for knowledge, not for guilt.
looked at whether brain-based evidence might unduly influence juries and prejudice the fair outcome of trials. They found the concerns that neuroscientific evidence may adversely influence trials could be overstated. In their experiment, mock jurors were influenced by the existence of brain based evidence, whether it indicated guilty knowledge or the absence of it. But the strength of other evidence, such as motive or opportunity, weighed more heavily in the hypothetical jurors’ minds.
This is not surprising, as our case-based research demonstrates the importance of the context in which neuroscientific evidence is introduced in court. It could help support a case, but the success is dependent on the strength of all the evidence combined. In no case was the use of neuroscientific evidence alone determinative of the outcome, though in several it was highly significant.
Memory detection technologies are improving, but even if they are “accurate” (however we choose to define that term) it does not automatically mean they will or should be allowed in court. Society, legislators and the courts are going to have to decide whether our memories should be allowed to remain private or whether the needs of justice trump privacy considerations. Our innermost thoughts have always been viewed as private; are we ready to surrender them to law enforcement agencies?

Law / Exeter university students suspended over racism and rape claims
« on: March 22, 2018, 04:36:14 PM »
Exeter university students suspended over racism and rape claims
The university said it was "committed to eradicating" any discrimination and harassment
A group of law students have been suspended from the University of Exeter over allegations of racism.
It comes after "vile" comments made by members of a law society on WhatsApp were revealed by a student and shared more than 2,000 times on Facebook.
Police have been informed and "full disciplinary action will be taken as appropriate," the university said.
One student has had a job offer withdrawn by a law firm who said they are "deeply disturbed by the messages".
The WhatsApp messages, screenshots of which are included below, were branded "sickening" and "disgusting" by fellow students.
One of the students issued a "sincere apology for his inexcusable comments", saying: "I will not attempt to excuse and deny any of the statements I have made. The comments, which I shall not repeat, are inexcusable and undeniably wrong.
"I would like to make it publicly known that I do not honestly believe any of the things I have said."
The university said it "does not tolerate any form of racist behaviour".
The messages also involve discussion about degrading sexual encounters with women and describe "raping" other students "senseless".
Image copyright Arsalan Motavali Image caption The messages were sent between members of a law society on WhatsApp
The Students' Guild said it was involved in the investigation into "a small number of Bracton Law Society (BLS) committee members" and "the individuals in question have had their membership suspended".
A spokesman said: "The named students have had their BLS committee positions removed and all society activity has also been suspended until the end of this week while we establish the full extent and nature of the issue."
BLS said racist views "do not in any way whatsoever represent the society or its ethos".
Image copyright Arsalan Motavali Image caption The comments are being investigated by the University
A Devon and Cornwall Police spokesperson said: "Police are aware of this incident and are liaising with staff at the University of Exeter."
Law firm Hill Dickinson put a post on Facebook saying: "Following serious allegations made against an individual who was due to join the firm in September 2019, we have now spoken to the individual and revoked his offer of employment."

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