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Topics - Afroza Akhter Tina

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English / Motivating teachers
« on: May 15, 2018, 02:14:44 PM »
The following article reveals ways of motivating teachers.Do we need these?

Afroza Akhter Tina
Senior Lecturer
Department of English, DIU

MCT / Drama in ELT
« on: June 14, 2017, 12:29:03 PM »
Most ELT teachers nowadays advocate some elements of a ‘Communicative Approach’ and therefore recognise and appreciate the value of Drama in ELT. Drama can be defined as activity involving people in a social context and there is no doubt that effective communication in social situations involves other forms of communication that go beyond language competence and includes the use of gesture, body posture, intonation and other prosodic features. However the inclusion of drama based activities is not so evident in current ELT course books, resource books, supplementary materials and teacher training courses. Teachers clearly need practical step by step guidance on how to incorporate drama more comprehensively and cohesively into their teaching.

Afroza Akhter Tina
Senior Lecturer
Department of English, DIU

This paper, Language Documentation, Revitalization, and Reclamation: Supporting Young Learners and Their Communities, addresses the relationship between language documentation and language revitalization and reclamation (LR), and focuses on the associated impacts on young children and their communities. The paper was produced by the Child Language Research and Revitalization Working Group, comprised of academic, professional, and community experts from a wide variety of disciplines and backgrounds. The work was generously supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. 1500720.

In this paper, the writers explore the impact of language documentation on LR, and consider how these activities not only promote language (re)learning, but also influence social, emotional and physical well-being among young children and their families and communities. They discuss existing research and practice, and recommend next steps to support Indigenous communities’ actions to maintain, restore, and reclaim their languages. Through this overview of existing knowledge, they aim to lay a foundation for future research in order to share and enhance the outcomes and benefits of language documentation and LR practice.

Please follow the link below:

Afroza Akhter Tina
Senior Lecturer
Department of English, DIU

English / Causes of back pain in the workplace
« on: May 31, 2017, 12:21:01 PM »
Back pain can be caused by many work situations. The exact cause is often unclear, but back pain is more common in roles that involve:

    1. heavy manual labour, and handling tasks in heavy industry;
   2.  manual handling in awkward places, like delivery work;
    3. repetitive tasks, such as manual packing of goods;
    4. sitting at a workstation for a long period of time if the workstation is not correctly arranged or adjusted to fit the person, eg working with computers;
    5. driving long distances or driving over rough ground, particularly if the seat is not, or cannot be, properly adjusted or adequately sprung.
    6. operating heavy equipment, such as an excavator,
    7. stooping, bending over or crouching (poor posture);
    8. pushing, pulling or dragging loads that require excessive force;
    9. working beyond normal abilities and limits, and when physically overtired;
  10. stretching, twisting and reaching;

Afroza Akhter Tina
Senior Lecturer
Department of English, DIU

English / Drama in ELT
« on: May 31, 2017, 12:12:43 PM »
Most ELT teachers nowadays advocate some elements of a ‘Communicative Approach’ and therefore recognise and appreciate the value of Drama in ELT. Drama can be defined as activity involving people in a social context and there is no doubt that effective communication in social situations involves other forms of communication that go beyond language competence and includes the use of gesture, body posture, intonation and other prosodic features. However the inclusion of drama based activities is not so evident in current ELT course books, resource books, supplementary materials and teacher training courses. Teachers clearly need practical step by step guidance on how to incorporate drama more comprehensively and cohesively into their teaching.

Afroza Akhter Tina
Senior Lecturer
Department of English, DIU

English / How to Argue???
« on: May 31, 2017, 12:08:10 PM »
Arguments don't have to be hurtful, but they can easily turn that way if you're not careful. Luckily, there are several techniques and tricks you can try, which will allow you to get your point across without turning the discussion into a full-on fight. The ability to argue effectively is actually a great skill to learn, and can come in handy in a wide variety of situations, giving you the confidence to stand up for yourself and what you believe in.

1. Arguing Positively

Play fair: Odds are you know exactly how to push the other person's buttons, but it's important to resist if you want to have a civil argument. Resolve that no matter how upset he or she makes you, you will not say the one thing you know would push the argument over the edge.

Respect the other person: Respect what the other person has to say. An argument has to be two-sided; if you fail to hear the other side out, they will return the gesture and not listen to you. Refuting a person's opinion is fine, but refusing to hear it makes a debate pointless.

Attack ideas, not the person they're attached to: When you argue with someone, you should remember to only attack that person's ideas, not the person themselves. That means you shouldn't call the person stupid for thinking what they think, and you shouldn't devolve to attacks on their physical appearance either.

Admit when you are wrong: When you make a mistake, admit it. Admit that you misunderstood or were misinformed. Being wrong doesn't make you a lesser person but admitting you're wrong does make you the bigger person.

Apologize when appropriate: If you've hurt someone or your argument caused problems, you should apologize. Be the adult in the situation and take responsibility for your actions.

Be open to new ideas: The best way to argue positively is to be open to new ideas. You don't want to be wrong in an argument again, do you? Open yourself to the possibility of a better way of thinking or new, fascinating information.

 2. Arguing Persuasively

Make them feel smart: When you make people feel stupid, that makes them shut down and tends to quickly lead an argument nowhere. Make them feel smart and you'll have an easier time turning the argument in your favor.

Use evidence tailored to the argument and audience: Evidence from reliable sources that specifically supports and deals with what you're arguing about can be one of the easiest ways to win an argument. You should also tailor the type of evidence you use to what kind of person they are, using more logical or more emotional evidence based on what you think they'll respond to best.

Look for logical fallacies: Pointing out fallacies in their logic and politely explaining why that logic is bad is a good way to start to change someone's mind. Learning to recognize logical fallacies can be challenging but here are a few common ones:
    Watch out for arguments with incorrectly assume that correlation means causation. For example, rates of autism diagnosis increased with the usage of cell phones. Therefore, autism is caused by cellphone usage. Post-hoc fallacies are similar, but are based on the idea that because A preceded B, B was caused by A.
    An Argument from Silence fallacy is the idea that because there is no evidence for something, it must not exist. For example, God/germs/evolution/aliens do not exist because we have never physically witnessed them.
    Non-Sequiturs are when the conclusion of an argument is unrelated to its premise. For example, the argument that we can't pay teachers more because policemen and firefighters do not make that much money.

Paint them as the hero or victim: People like to think of themselves as the main character in their life story. Keep them thinking this and charm them into changing their views by carefully tailoring how you talk about the issues.

    For example, "I know you really, really want to help people. You're one of the most generous people that I know. But if you really wanted to help people, you wouldn't donate to a charity that misuses their money like that. Don't you want to be sure that your money is directly saving lives?"

Curate your language: When you argue, avoid language like "you" and "me". Instead, use words like "we". This brings your opponent into thinking of the two of you as a single unit with singular interests, rather than driving you apart.

Know when to stop: Sometimes, someone won't be able to change their mind right in front of you. Sometimes you have to just back off and their mind will change slowly over the course of time, as they think about what you said. Of course, sometimes you just have to persist too. It's a subtle art that you may just have to experiment with.

    Generally, if someone seems like they're getting really upset, it's time to stop.
    Close the argument with something like, "Okay, I can see that I can't change your mind but, please, just think about what I said."

Afroza Akhter Tina
Senior Lecturer
Department of English, DIU

English / The Frankfurt Book Fair
« on: May 06, 2017, 03:31:58 PM »
The Frankfurt Book Fair is the world's largest trade fair for books, based on the number of publishing companies represented, and also largest trade fair for books based on the number of visitors.
It is held annually in mid-October at the Frankfurt Trade Fair grounds in Frankfurt am Main, Germany. The first three days are restricted exclusively to trade visitors; the general public can attend on the last two.

Representatives from book publishing and multimedia companies, content providers and technology companies from all over the world come to Frankfurter Buchmesse in order to negotiate international publishing rights and licensing fees. The fair is organized by Frankfurter Buchmesse GmbH, a subsidiary company of the German Publishers and Booksellers Association. For five days more than 7,000 exhibitors from over 100 countries and more than 277,000 visitors take part. The Frankfurt Book Fair is considered to be the most important book fair in the world for international deals and trading.

Afroza Akhter Tina
Senior Lecturer
Department of English, DIU

English / Nanda Dyssou interviews Ngũgĩ wa Thiong'o
« on: May 06, 2017, 03:21:37 PM »
NGŨGĨ WA THIONG’O is a world-renowned Kenyan writer, scholar, and social activist. Ngũgĩ’s diverse body of work includes novels, short stories, plays, articles, essays, and poems, which have been translated into over 60 languages. A Distinguished Professor of Comparative Literature at UC Irvine, he has received numerous awards and 11 honorary doctorates. Ngũgĩ refers to himself as a “language warrior” because of his fight for the recognition of his native Gĩkũyũ and other marginalized languages. He graciously agreed to this interview on the occasion of receiving yet another major honor: the second annual LARB/UCR Creative Writing Lifetime Achievement Award.

Nanda Dyssou is a Congolese-Hungarian journalist and fiction writer living in Los Angeles.

NANDA DYSSOU: Did you ever think when you were growing up that you would be an internationally renowned author and that your stories of Kenya would be translated into 60 different languages?

NGŨGĨ WA THIONG’O: No, never, not even that I would ever become a writer. The struggle to ensure that one seized whatever educational opportunities came one’s way was hard enough. The competition for places in the few schools and colleges available was fierce. From elementary schools to colleges, every two years were terminal exams. There were hardly any second chances. Once you got off the train, for whatever reason, you hardly ever got on it again. But I always wanted to read. As I narrated in my memoir, In the House of the Interpreter, my ambition, on entering a library for the first time in my life, was to one day be able to read all the books in the world. Reality would soon clip the wings of that ambition, but the desire to read remains.
What do you see as your role in the writing community at this point in your career?
I have become a language warrior. I want to join all those others in the world who are fighting for marginalized languages. No language is ever marginal to the community that created it. Languages are like musical instruments. You don’t say, let there be a few global instruments, or let there be only one type of voice all singers can sing.

NANDA DYSSOU:You found publishing success early in life. Your first play, The Black Hermit, was produced in 1962 and published in 1963. You wrote your first two novels — The River Between (1965) and Weep Not, Child (1964) — to critical acclaim while a second-year student in college. Were you ever worried that you could not replicate the successes of your early 20s?

NGŨGĨ WA THIONG’O: Actually, for many years, I thought of my early novels as my apprentice work. So despite the novels and play you mention, as well as eight or so short stories and over 60 pieces of journalism, I found it difficult to call myself a writer. I thought that I had yet to write the novel I wanted to write to earn the right to call myself a writer. A Grain of Wheat (1967) and Petals of Blood (1975) were attempts to write that novel. But by the time I completed these two works, I had changed my position on English as the primary language of my creativity and embraced Gĩkũyũ. But even with Gĩkũyũ, I try to write that novel that I have striven to write but have not yet written. Caitaani Mũtharabainĩ (1980; translated as Devil on the Cross) and Mũrogi wa Kagogo (2006; translated as Wizard of the Crow) were the result of my new commitment. Now I have come to realize that, for writing, there is no moment of arrival — or, rather, the moment of arrival is the beginning of a new phase of the journey. It is a continual challenge.

Afroza Akhter Tina
Senior Lecturer
Department of English, DIU

English / Some unwritten social rules
« on: April 17, 2017, 12:49:21 PM »
Some unwritten social rules everyone should know:

•   If you see somebody holding a door, then do that awkward walk run towards it, so that you don’t look like a jerk.
•   Don’t take selfies in public. It makes everyone super uncomfortable to watch you try and contort your face to make it look as attractive as possible.
•   For all the teens out there: Don’t block the god damned hallway because you for some reason have to be on your phones. Hallways are for walking.
•   When in an elevator, please, for the love of god, let people leave before trying to flood in yourself. The elevator won’t leave without you. Everything will be OK.
•   Don’t be that person who makes a 20 slide power point that is full of blocks of text, and then read it all.
•   Cover your mouth when you cough. I got sick because someone coughed into their hand and then touched me. I couldn’t go on a trip I have been fundraising and getting excited for all year because of some idiot who can’t use basic hygiene.
•   Don’t be that person who inadvertently picks on nervous or shy people. You don’t have to point out our anxiety. We are well aware of it.

Elias Fredericks

Afroza Akhter Tina
Senior Lecturer
Department of English, DIU

English / A quote
« on: April 17, 2017, 12:31:39 PM »
"Nothing in the world is more dangerous than sincere ignorance and conscientious stupidity."
- Martin Luther King Jr. (1929-1968)

Afroza Akhter Tina
Senior Lecturer
Department of English, DIU

English / Personality and Motivation in achieving L2
« on: April 09, 2017, 04:10:30 PM »
‘Personality’ and ‘motivation’ are two important psychological factors which boost up the learner to acquire L2 and reshape our thinking and behavior. Robert Gardner and Wallace Lambert (1972) coined these terms regarding their significant roles in achieving L2.

Ernest Hilgard (1963) noted that human behavior or learning is determined by his personality. In recent years there has been an increasing awareness of the necessity in second language research and teaching to examine human personality in order to find solutions to perplexing problems.

Research over the last three decades has consistently underlined to find out what motivation is along with its important role in successful language learning (Gardner & Lambert 1972, Naiman et al 1978, Oxford & Shearin 1994, Ushioda 1996). Learner's success and failure is very much dependable on the term motivation which is commonly thought of as an inner drive, impulse, emotion or desire that moves one to a particular action. It is refers to the choice of people make as to what experience or goals they will approach or avoid the degree of effort they will exert in that respect(Keller 1983). There are some other factors which are closely related to motivation and these have a combined role to motivate L2 learners. Attitude, age, gender, self esteem, inhibition, risk taking, anxiety, extroversion, syllabus, socio-economical background, talent, and class room factors all these are important variables regarding the factor.

Afroza Akhter Tina
Senior Lecturer
Department of English, DIU

English / A thought on American Dream
« on: April 02, 2017, 03:30:53 PM »
The ‘American Dream’ is based on the ‘Declaration of Independence’: ‘We believe that all men are born with these inalienable rights – life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness’, (Thomas Jefferson, 1776). This ‘dream’ consists of a genuine and determined belief that in America, all things are possible to all men, regardless of birth or wealth; if you work hard enough you will achieve anything. To be hard working, honest and having ambition were the ways to the American Dream which lead to success, wealth and in due time – power. But this dream also develops and encourages greedy selfish behavior, pride and rivalry among people. Willy Loman in 'Death of a Salesman' was ‘caught- up’ in this American Dream. His blind faith in his stunted version of the American Dream leads to his rapid psychological decline when he is unable to accept the disparity between the Dream and his own life. Capitalism, the profit motive and competitive instinct, makes Willy have a weakness in his personality which was caused by a combination of business pressures. Willy wants to prove himself as a salesman, but as he fails, his own life finally destroys him.

Afroza Akhter Tina
Senior Lecturer
Department of English, DIU

English / The 5-Step Writing Process: From Brainstorming to Publishing
« on: March 18, 2017, 04:38:56 PM »
Every writer follows his or her own writing process. Often the process is a routine that comes naturally and is not a step-by-step guide to which writers refer. Being conscious of your own writing process is especially helpful when you find yourself struggling with a particularly tricky piece. Here are five steps towards creating or identifying your personal writing process.

1. Prewriting

You’re ready to start writing. So why has that blank page been staring back at you for the past hour? Prewriting identifies everything you need to do before you sit down to start your rough draft.

        Find Your Idea
        Ideas are all around you. You might draw inspiration from a routine, an everyday situation or a childhood memory. Alternatively, keep a notebook specifically devoted to catching your ideas as they come to you. Your own imagination is the only limit to finding your source of inspiration.
        Build On Your Idea
        Two of the most popular methods of fleshing out your idea are free writing and brainstorming. Free writing means writing every idea that comes into your head. Do not stop to edit your mistakes, just let the ideas flow. Or, try brainstorming. If you're on a computer, try a manual process first to help you visualize your narrative: write your idea in the center of the page and work outwards in all of the different directions you can take your story.
        Plan and Structure
        Piecing the puzzle together comes next. It's time to sort through your ideas and choose which ones you will use to form your story. Make sure you keep your notes even after your book is published – there may be the seeds for your next story as well.

2. Writing

Now you have your plan and you’re ready to start writing. Remember, this is your first rough draft. Forget about word count and grammar. Don’t worry if you stray off topic in places; even the greatest writers produce multiple drafts before they produce their finished manuscript. Think of this stage as a free writing exercise, just with more direction. Identify the best time and location to write and eliminate potential distractions. Make writing a regular part of your day.

3. Revision

Your story can change a great deal during this stage. When revising their work, many writers naturally adopt the A.R.R.R. approach:

        Add: The average novel has between 60,000 and 100,000 words. Does your book have enough words to be considered a novel? Have you given your readers all the information they need to make sense of your story? If not, go back to your notebook that you kept for additional scenes and any additional details.
        Rearrange: Consider the flow, pacing and sequencing of your story. Would the plot be better served if some of the events occur in a different order?
        Remove: After making additions to your story, how is your word count now? Are your readers experiencing information overload? You may need to eliminate passages that don’t quite fit.
        Replace: The most effective way to revise your work is to ask for a second opinion. Do you need more vivid details to help clarify your work? Is one scene contradicting another? Ask friends or fellow writers to take a look and give you feedback, and if something isn’t working rewrite it and replace it.

4. Editing

You have overhauled your story. It’s time to fine tune your manuscript line by line. Check for repetition, clarity, grammar, spelling and punctuation. Editing is an extremely detailed process and its best when performed by a professional.Nobody wants to read a book that is full of mistakes, and they certainly won’t buy a book that is riddled with them.

5. Publishing

You now have a completed manuscript ready to publish.

More information can be found from the shared link below:

Afroza Akhter Tina
Senior Lecturer
Department of English, DIU

English / The difference between gelato and ice cream
« on: August 23, 2016, 02:11:24 PM »
The difference between gelato and ice cream

Gelato is the Italian word for ice cream, so you could argue that gelato and ice cream are the same. However we all know that there’s a big difference between the soft, smooth texture and clean taste of gelato compared to American-style ice cream's heavier, richer texture? So why the difference? It comes down to these factors: fat, sugar, air and serving temperature.
Firstly, let us explain how all ice cream/gelato is made. All ice cream is mostly water, and as we all know as water freezes it forms hard, crunchy ice crystals. The goal of ice cream making is keeping those crystals as small as possible through added ingredients and technique (and of course creating great flavour!). Ice cream makers manage this crystallization in the following ways:
Fat - If fat (ie milk or cream) is emulsified into the base mix it becomes mixed in between the water molecules and literally gets in the way of ice as it freezes.

Sugar - This also forms a physical barrier to the crystallization process. When sugar is dissolved into water it forms a syrup which has a lower freezing point than plain water and the higher the concentration of sugar the lower the freezing point becomes. As water starts to freeze in syrup the unfrozen water becomes a more concentrated syrup. With reducing temperatures this process continues until eventually you have small ice crystals in syrup so concentrated it will never freeze.

Air - This is incorporated into ice cream during the churning process. A more aerated ice cream has a fluffier, less dense texture.
The temperature ice cream is stored at also has effect: colder ice creams are harder and more solid, while warmer ones are softer, with a looser texture. We’ll talk about this more later on.

There are some other tricks to keep ice cream soft, such as alcohol, starch, protein (in egg and milk), and natural stabilizers like guar gum and carrageen, but the top four above are the main factors for all ice creams.
The difference between ice cream and gelato Compared to today's American-style ice cream gelato has less fat in the base and less air churned into it during the freezing process.

American-style ice creams are generally heavy on cream, and have a fat content of at least 10% (which can be considerably higher in most homemade and many premium versions).
Gelato uses more milk than cream, so it doesn't have nearly as much fat.
American-style ice creams are churned quickly to whip in plenty of air (called overrun) which is helped by the high proportion of cream in the base. Most luxury ice creams have an overrun of around 25% which means they've increased the mix in volume by 25%. Cheaper commercial versions can run from 50% to over 90%, which gives them a light, thin, fast-melting texture with less flavor as in reality you are eating mostly air!

Gelato is churned at a much slower speed, which introduces less air into the base. So, you get more pleasure per mouthful with gelato!
All these differences give gelato a dense, milky texture that's less creamy than the fat heavy American-style ice creams.

Gelato has a more intense flavor than ice cream, since it has less cold fat that coats the tongue and gets in the way of tasting things. Gelato's flavors come through directly and quickly then melt away, leaving a clean mouth.

Serving Temperature: If gelato has less fat and air than ice cream, you may wonder why it isn’t hard? It's because of the last big factor; temperature.

Gelato is best served at a slightly higher temperature than ice cream. If you freeze gelato really cold, it will become very hard. However, when it is ‘warmer’ it has a perfect soft consistency. If you stored ice cream at the same warmer temperature, it would melt and become watery as the high fat in water emulsion would melt too fast.

That’s why we recommend that our gelato is best eaten in store, as it is freshly made and held and served at the correct temperature.

If you do wish to take away a liter of our ice cream to enjoy at home, we suggest you let the gelato stand for 30 minutes after removing from the freezer in order for it to ‘warm up’ to the correct serving temperature.

Afroza Akhter Tina
Senior Lecturer
Department of English, DIU

English / Love poems
« on: July 31, 2016, 06:36:11 PM »
Love One Another

By Khalil Gibran

You were born together, and together you shall be forever more.
You shall be together when the white wings of death scatter your days.
 Ay, you shall be together even in the silent memory of God.
But let there be spaces in your togetherness,
And let the winds of the heavens dance between you.

Love one another, but make not a bond of love:
Let it rather be a moving sea between the shores of your souls.
Fill each other's cup, but drink not from one cup.
Give one another of your bread, but eat not from the same loaf.
Sing and dance together and be joyous, but let each of you be alone,
Even as the strings of a lute are alone though they quiver with the same music.

Give your hearts, but not into each other's keeping.
For only the hand of Life can contain your hearts.
And stand together yet not too near together:
For the pillars of the temple stand apart,
And the oak tree and the cypress grow not in each other's shadow.

Afroza Akhter Tina
Senior Lecturer
Department of English, DIU

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