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Messages - Raisa

Pages: 1 ... 40 41 [42] 43 44 ... 47
617
Business Administration / Re: Principal-Agent Relationships
« on: April 29, 2018, 07:27:45 PM »
great

618
Business Administration / Re: Cost of fund
« on: April 29, 2018, 07:27:17 PM »
Nice one

619
Business Administration / Re: Way of conducting class smartly
« on: April 29, 2018, 07:26:38 PM »
good one

620
Business Administration / Re: Amortized Loan
« on: April 29, 2018, 07:26:10 PM »
informative

621
Business Administration / Re: Good News
« on: April 29, 2018, 07:25:21 PM »
Great sir

622
Business Administration / Re: An agency theory
« on: April 29, 2018, 07:24:52 PM »
good one sir !

623
Business Administration / Consequences of Unemployment
« on: April 29, 2018, 07:24:05 PM »
Source http://textbook.stpauls.br/Macroeconomics/page_81.htm
Result of Unemployment :
a loss of GDP,
loss of tax revenue,
increased cost of unemployment benefits,
loss of income for individuals, and
greater disparities in the distribution of income.
The main cost of unemployment is a personal one to those who are unemployed, however, the whole economy suffers also.

Syllabus: Discuss possible personal and social consequences of unemployment, including

increased crime rates,
increased stress levels,
increased indebtedness,
homelessness and
family breakdown.
Individuals may become dispirited by unemployment and lose their self-esteem and confidence. This may affect their motivation to work. The longer individuals are unemployed, the more they may lose their skills and become uemployable which is bad for the economy as well.

On top of that, the problems associated with unemployment may result in the unemployed being less healthy, which leads to health-related costs. Areas of high unemployment and social deprivation may also experience higher crime levels, suicide rates and psychological problems. Certainly, both the national economy, and society in general, suffers from high rates of unemployment especially when it becomes long-term.

As well as these microeconomic and sociological effects, there will also be macro effects. These will include:

Loss of output to the economy - the unemployed could be producing goods and services and if they are not, then GDP is lower than it could be -this is the opportunity cost of unemployment.
Loss of tax revenue - unemployed people are not earning and not paying tax. The government has reduced revenues to spend on public services.
Increase in government expenditure - the government has to pay out benefits to support the unemployed - less revenue and more expenditure.
Loss of profits - with higher employment firms are likely to sell more and make higher profits. If they make less profit because of unemployment, they may have less funds to invest.
The true impact of unemployment will depend on two factors. These are:

The unemployment rate (see Page 79)
The duration of unemployment
Normally, the longer an individual is unemployed, the more difficult it is to find work. Similarly, a large number of unemployed people cause more social problems than a small number.

Unemployment has individual consequences. Some of those who are unemployed may seek a career change, while others may enjoy their additional leisure time! However, for the majority, there will be a fall in disposable income, since unemployment-related benefits seldom pay as much as salaried employment. Living standards will fall and some of the unemployed might be forced to over-use credit and loan-financed purchases. The longer they remain unemployed, the less training and development they are receiving and the more unemployable they become.

For businesses, unemployment means lower demand for some products and employee morale may suffer. Productivity could fall, as workers fear that they are next for the unemployment pile. However, a larger pool of unemployed will exist, so some employers might find hiring new labour easier (and perhaps cheaper).

The economy might also suffer as output falls (and therefore tax revenue falls) and government expenditure on benefits increases. Opportunity cost decisions will have to be made. The distribution of income will become more uneven, and unemployment might cause downward pressure on wage levels, as workers fear pricing themselves out of a job.

In summary,when unemployment exists, it means lost output, as the economy will be working below full potential and tax revenues will be lower. As unemployment rates increase more state benefits have to be paid, which involves a further economic opportunity cost. We have also noted the potential for social difficulties.

624
Public Health / What are the early signs of cancer?
« on: April 22, 2018, 09:06:37 PM »
The following symptoms may also indicate the presence of some form of cancer:
Coughing-up blood.
Persistent headaches.
Unexplained loss of weight or appetite.
Chronic pain in bones.
Persistent fatigue, nausea, or vomiting.
Persistent low-grade fever, either constant or intermittent.
Repeated instances of infection.

625
Fashion / How To Take A Good Selfie: 12 Selfie Tips To Consider
« on: March 13, 2018, 04:41:08 PM »
Go to your camera roll right now. Scroll the short distance to the last time you were taking selfies. Now pause to observe. Chances are, you banked somewhere between five and 450,000 shots until you got the right one. We all do it. That's because nailing the perfect selfie isn't easy—it's about the right combination of light, angle, setting, and photo filters.
We consulted with selfie experts (celebrity vloggers, bloggers and makeup artists) to find out how to take a good selfie. Read on for twelve tips that will help you take your selfie game to the next level.
1. Lighting is Everything
It sounds obvious, but the first rule of selfie-ing is to pay attention to your lighting. You need good lighting. Natural lighting. As vlogger Jordan Liberty puts it, "Light is undoubtedly the best beauty product you don't have to pay for." Instead of facing your computer screen or television, turn toward a window with natural light. Or better yet, go outside and bask in the sun's glow (with sunscreen on). Good lighting can actually make undereye circles and shadows totally disappear.
2. Avoid Shadows
"There is nothing worse than having a huge shadow cast over your face," says photographer and style blogger Candice Lake. "When in doubt, face directly into or away from the sun. If it's the middle of the day and the sun is high, the shadows can look like bags under your eyes. The golden hour to shoot a photo is during sunrise or sunset, when the light is low and the most beautiful."
3. Know When to Use Flash
While finding natural light and avoiding shadows are key tips to how to take a good selfie, there are times when you want to take a selfie and it's dark. Whether you're in the club or just on your couch watching Netflix, how do you get a great selfie in little to no light? Turn to Snapchat. The app has a flash feature for the front-facing camera, while the regular photo app on iPhone does not. In Snapchat, hit the little lightning bolt on the top left corner and then take your selfie. The screen will burst bright white light on your face. It won't look perfect by any means (it gives the photo a subtle blue cast), but at least you'll be able to see your face. Once you save it to your camera roll, you can play with the tone to make it a little less blue.
4. Smile Like You Mean It
"Flash a real smile and no image will look bad," says Lake. Don't contort your face into a grin that's too big or forced. Natural smiles are always better. On the other hand, if you're going for slightly more serious selfie, pull a Tyra and "try smiling with your eyes." Lake's advice for perfecting the smize? Practice in front of the mirror until you get it right. You'll get the hang of it!
5. Take a Lot of Selfies...and We Mean A LOT
Kylie Jenner's best selfie tip is just to take selfies. A lot of selfies. She's said that she takes "like, 500 selfies" before she finds one she likes enough to post. "Sometimes I regret putting one up if I find a better one later. I'm like damn, that's a better photo, but that's the only thing I regret," she has said. Try tilting your head in different directions and changing the angles up slightly between each shot so there's a wide variety to choose from. And don't forget to make sure the camera's focused before snapping away.
You can film your selfie session instead of taking standard pictures. Press record on the video option instead and pose away. After a minute or two of this, you can scroll through the video and freeze a frame with the best selfie. It sounds silly, but you can actually pull out the best selfie poses this way (and no one will ever know the difference!).
6. Play to Your Angles
If there's one piece of advice you should take from Kim Kardashian, it's this: When it comes to selfies, keep your chin down and the camera up. There are about five people in the world who look good when shot from under their chin, and we haven't met any of them. When taking a selfie, hold the phone so that the bottom of it is level with your eyes. Or better yet, use a selfie stick. They're ridiculous in every way except one: Because you hold them up high, they make everyone look svelte and supermodel-y in photos.
Furthermore, you probably shouldn't stare directly into the camera. "Most people don't look their best straight-on. Turn to the side a little bit — not to the point where it's a full-on profile, but just slightly," says makeup artist Nick Barose.
7. Use the Right Apps and Filters
"I have a soft spot for the Valencia [Instagram] filter. It's the dreamiest of all filters and it makes everyone look gorgeous," says Lake, who also recommends the Afterlight app for editing camera-phone photos. If you're really serious about selfies, Phan recommends the Samsung Galaxy S5 phone, which has a selfie mode. "It makes everything easy. I take a picture and it automatically airbrushes my face and it brightens it," she says. There's no shame in editing a photo of yourself before posting it to the 'Gram. We also love Facetune, which lets you subtly blur, shape, morph, and define certain areas of your face. Blogger Amanda Steele likes the filters on VSCO, but other great apps are Perfect365 and Adobe Photoshop Fix. Don't like your under-eye bags? Blur them away! Want to whiten your teeth? Go for it. A subtle trick on Facetune is to "detail" your eyes, which makes them look bright and sparkly. What's on the Internet lives forever, after all.
8. Don't Over-Edit
While we're all for editing and filtering, don't adjust your selfie to the point that it looks unnatural. When editing, use a really light touch. It's easy to get carried away. Only touch up the areas that are glaringly obvious to you — those little lines around your eyes make you look human. If you're using a filter, you also have the option to not use it at max capacity. Instead of just selecting a photo filter on Instagram, click on the filter itself (Amaro, Valencia, etc.) until a sliding bar comes up. Then you can reduce the severity of the filter, making the photo appear a little less edited.
9. Be Mindful of Your Background
The best selfies have either interesting backgrounds (Oh, you're just casually selfie-ing while skydiving? Great.) or really, really simple ones. The middle ground is what's deadly. And beware of photo-bombers.
10. Don't Overthink It
Just relax. A trying-too-hard selfie is never going to be a good one. "The thing about selfies is that you don't want them to be too serious. If your makeup looks like it took you an hour to do and you look too posed, you're not doing it right," says Barose. The best selfie poses are the ones that come naturally to you.
11. Avoid Cliché Selfies
Rule of thumb: If it looks like something a teenager on MySpace circa 2004 would have done, you shouldn't be doing it. "No one needs to do that Kim Kardashian duck-lips face," says Barose. It might give you killer cheekbones — but it's time to retire it.
Should you find yourself overwhelmed by the urge to throw up some sort of faux gang sign…put down your iPhone and do not let yourself near any other camera until the urge subsides. Most of the time, people rely on those poses because they feel uncomfortable. But Lake has a trick for loosening up: "If you feel a little stiff, walk away and then step into the frame again and snap quickly. You'll have less time to be self-conscious."
12. Embrace Natural Expressions
"Right before you snap a selfie, say 'yes' in your head, or 'yasss' if you're feeling extra sassy. You can also inhale just as you hit the shutter for lightly parted lips and a relaxed expression," Liberty says. He also recommends keeping your eyes shut until the moment before you take the shot. "Expressions look best when they're fresh."
source https://www.allure.com/story/how-to-take-good-selfies

626
Fashion / TEN TIPS FOR BEING A MODERN LADY
« on: March 13, 2018, 04:39:04 PM »
source http://thedailylove.com/ten-tips-for-being-a-modern-lady/
A lady always shows respect and consideration for others while placing a premium on honesty and graciousness. A lady also knows how her individual choices may affect others and how easy it is to choose words and actions more wisely. If you missed out on cotillion as a child, I think it best to invest in an etiquette book. ‘Emily Post’s Book of Etiquette’ is great to look up and source any question you might have and a perfect addition to any Lady’s Library. In the meantime here are my top 10 tips for being a lady in modern day society.
1. Follow Through  – Nobody likes a flaky person. Regardless of how busy your life has become with commitments to your Husband and Children, you should never agree to take on more than you can handle i.e.… rsvp-ing to events, lunches with friends or other engagements. When receiving an invitation, contemplate if you’ll be exhausted from a busy day and politely decline. Many people re-arrange their schedules and look forward to plans and get upset with last minute cancellations. If a cancellation is necessary, be sincere in your apology and reschedule as soon as possible.

2. Phone Etiquette – Calls should only be placed between the hours of 9:00am – 10:00pm.  Try to make a habit of returning calls within 24 hours of getting the message. When taking calls on your cell phone do consider other around you, keep conversations short and never discuss private matters in public. Your cell phone should remain in your purse and never be taken out during a meal. If need be excuse yourself from the table to check in with babysitters or any other emergencies. When in theatres or performances turn your phone to silent or off and avoid texting. Texting is extremely rude when in the presence of others.

3. Dressing Like a Lady – A lady always leaves something to the imagination, which is why one should choose to show a little leg or instead decide to accentuate your décolletage. When sitting down always cross your legs or ankles to avoid nearby peeping toms; it’s also important to practice getting in and out of cars without flashing the valet. (http://www.videojug.com/film/how-to-get-out-of-a-car-without-showing-your-knickers) Take the time to learn which dress codes are appropriate for certain occasions, for example if your invitation calls for “Cocktail Attire”, “Black Tie” or “White Tie,” would you know what is appropriate to wear? (Dress Code Guide: http://www.taryncoxthewife.com/?s=dress+code)
4. It’s The Little Things – When a guest enters your home, do you offer them a glass of water or beverage of their choice? When arranging for a dinner party, do you remember if one of your dinner guests has a gluten allergy? When selecting a gift, is it something your friend mentioned they wanted? Just as a gentlemen would offer his coat if you were showing signs of being cold is how you should pay attention to small details. It’s a great way to show the people around you how much you care and are listening. Go the distance to make the people in your life feel incredibly special.

5. Always The Gracious Guest – Whether you have been invited over to a someone’s home for a dinner party, movie screening or cocktails, Never show up without a hostess gift. The gesture can be as small as a bottle of wine or dessert to as grand as having a flower arrangement delivered.

6. A Mouth from The South – This is easy and won’t cost you a dime. Make a conscious effort to avoid using profanity. Every once in a blue moon I can appreciate good use of the F word to really drive a point across, but when in public lets keep it clean!

7. The Art of Conversation – When being introduced to someone try to repeat their name out loud so it won’t escape your brain as easily. If you’re at a small soiree do your best to socialize with each person, making everyone feel comfortable and included. When engaged in a conversation remember to listen well and show your interest in what others are speaking about. Try to avoid topics that will engage arguments like politics, sex and money. Other important things to remember: always accept a compliment, never flirt inappropriately and what you say can never be un-said.

8. A Lady at The Table – As a lady the first action one should take when sitting down to the table is to put your napkin in your lap; when you’re finished your napkin gets placed next to your plate, never on top. Your mother was right with the never changing rule of…. No elbows on the table. When being served always ask for food to be passed to you than trying to reach for it.  When the meal is done never apply lipstick at the table, instead excuse yourself to the ladies room.
9. Merci– A lady always writes thoughtful handwritten thank you notes for gifts received and other kind acts of generosity, for example when someone goes out of their way to make special arrangements or plans for you. Thank you notes may not be eagerly awaited, but it’s something that should be expected and most likely noticed in their absence.  If you want to go the extra mile, call your host the next day to say what a great time you had.

10. Gossip Girl – This happens to be one thing every women is guilty of doing. Let’s face it – avoiding gossiping can be hard, but is this the way you want to spend your time? Be aware of people who gossip the most. Eventually the people doing the gossiping will eventually come to gossip about you, when your not there to defend yourself. If you fail the next time you hear gossip and find yourself repeating it, try changing the topic of conversation. With practice it will get easier.

627
Life Science / Life Science
« on: March 07, 2018, 01:14:03 PM »
Our Life Science portfolio delivers products and services for life science research in academic and pharmaceutical environments. Our focus on genomic, proteomic and cellular analysis is supported by sample preparation, research reagents, intuitive detection platforms, and services to help customers better understand biological function and disease.

Discover our broad portfolio of Life Science platforms, antibodies, biochemicals, buffers, immunoassays, multiplexing Assays, sterile filtration & cell culture consumables.Monoclonal and polyclonal primary antibodies are focused on cell biology, neurobiology and molecular biology. Secondary antibodies targeting multiple host’s IgG are conjugated to alkaline phosphatase, peroxidase, biotin, FITC and other labels. Other immunochemicals include assay development reagents, such as purified immunoglobulins, controls, blocking agents, buffers and substrates.As people, we hope for longer, healthier and more productive lives. As scientists, we work every day to make that hope a reality. For cell culture, that means creating a consistent environment to ensure validity of results. Our comprehensive portfolio of high quality products includes everything from Fetal Bovine Serum, liquid media, supplements, and cryopreservation reagents to filtration units, general labware, and specialty cultureware. Through partnerships with organizations like the European Collection of Authenticated Cell Cultures (ECACC), we remain committed to providing high quality and consistent products for your cell culture preparation, growth, and analysis.

Join over 8,000 of your peers who have already signed up for the Cell Informer newsletter.Antibiotics, such as penicillin, puromycin, and ampicillin, are molecules that specifically target and kill cells. Antibiotics are classified into four categories: antibacterial, antiviral, antifungal, and antineoplastic. They work by a number of different actions including inhibition or regulation of cell wall synthesis, nucleic acid metabolism, and protein synthesis. Sigma-Aldrich offers a wide variety of antibiotics and antibiotic solutions for all your research needs.

628
Fever / How to Cure a Fever at Home
« on: March 07, 2018, 01:11:51 PM »
A fever is your body's natural response to fight off viruses and bacteria by weakening the germs and limiting their ability to reproduce.It also helps burn away toxins and stimulates the immune system. Since a fever is the body’s preferred method for healing itself, it should only be “cured” when the body becomes too weak to handle the infection, when the fever is too high for the body to handle, or when it makes you extremely uncomfortable. While you can handle most fevers at home, you should call 911 immediately if you also have severe dehydration with blue lips, tongue, or nails; severe headache; hallucinations or difficulty walking; difficulty breathing; or seizures.
1
Drink lots of water. Aim to drink at least eight ounces of water every two hours. Your body can quickly lose moisture and get dehydrated by sweating or sneezing caused by illnesses, such as colds and flu, that are often associated with a fever. Dehydration can cause your temperature to rise and often leads to headaches, dizziness, muscle cramps, low blood pressure, and seizures.[4]
2 liters of water is the daily recommendation for the average adult.[5] Caffeinated beverages in moderation are generally fine, but make sure they are not your only source of fluids. Get most of your daily fluids from pure water.[6]
Sports drinks are acceptable liquids for re-hydration, but use carefully. While these drinks do provide electrolytes, it is usually far more concentrated than necessary. Try diluting one part water to one part sports drink, or one glass of water for every glass of sports drink.
Rehydration solution. You do not need any commercial drinks to help re-hydrate--make your own.
For young children, consider a commercial electrolyte rehydration solution, such as Pedialyte, for young children, since these proportions have been specifically designed for children's bodies.[7]
To rehydrate children, offer at least 1 ounce per hour for infants, 2 ounces per hour for toddlers, and 3 ounces per hour for older children.

629
Business Administration / Theory of Supply
« on: February 02, 2018, 07:16:57 PM »
Supply is a schedule which shows the amounts of a product a producer is willing and able to produce and make available for sale at each price in a series of possible prices during a specified period. The amount the firms are willing to sell may not be the same as the amount they succeeded in selling.

Determinants of Quantity Supplied: How much of a commodity will firms be willing to produce and offer for sale? It depends on a number of factors. The main factors are shown below:

•   Price of the commodity
•   Price of other goods produced
•   Price of factors of production
•   The goals of the firm
•   Expected future price
•   The state of the technology
•   Number of suppliers
•   Taxes and subsidies

The price of the commodity: If the price of the commodity is higher, firms will produce and sale more of the commodity; and if the price of the commodity is lower, firms will produce and sale less of the commodity.

The price of other goods produced: The supply of a commodity is influenced by the price of the other goods produced. For example, a piece of land can produce either potato or wheat. So, these two commodities are substituted in production. . If the price of potato increases, the supply of wheat will be lower. People will use their land in producing potatoes. Therefore, an increase in the price of the substitute in production lowers the supply of the commodity. Commodities can also be complements in production. Complements in production arises when two things are, of necessarily, produced together. For example, cattle produce beef and cowhide. An increase in the price of anyone of these by products of cattle increases the supply of the other.

Prices of factors of production: The prices of factors of production used to produce a commodity influence its supply. For example, an increase in the prices of the labor and the capital machineries used to produce audio cassettes increase the cost of producing audio cassettes; so the supply of audio cassettes decrease.

The goals of the firm: Normally, the firm is assumed to have the single goal of profit maximization. Firms might have other goals either in addition to or substitutes for profit maximization. If the firm worries about risk, it will pursue safer lines of activity even though they promise lower probable profits. If it wants good image in society, it will produce and supply less quantity to ensure more quality.
Expected future price: Assumed that the price of any commodity will rise after six months, the commodity will be stored for sale after six months and the supply of that commodity will be lower at present. On the other hand, if there is a possibility of decreasing the price of the commodity after few months, the supply of the commodity will be more at present.
             
The state of technology: Invention of new technologies that enable the producers to produce their commodity at lower cost (use of less factors of production or cheaper factors of production), which increases their profits, and they increase supply. For example, the invention of transistors and silicon chips has revolutionized production in television. And thus the supply of television has increased.

Number of suppliers: Other things remaining the same, the larger the number of firms supplying a commodity, the larger the supply of the commodity.

Taxes and subsidies: Producers treats most taxes as costs. Therefore, an increase in sales taxes will increase costs and reduce supply. On the other hand, subsidies are reverse of taxes. If the government subsidizes the production of a good, it will lower cost and increase supply.

The Relationship between Price and Quantity Supplied: Law of Supply: If all other factors remain constant, there exists a relationship between commodity’s own price and quantity supplied. The relationship is called the law of supply.

The law of supply simply states that ‘other things remaining the same, the higher the price of a commodity, the higher the quantity supplied; and the lower the price of a commodity, the lower the quantity supplied’.

630
Business Administration / Elasticity
« on: February 02, 2018, 07:14:55 PM »

Elasticity of Demand and Supply

Elasticity is the ratio which measures the responsive or sensitiveness of a dependable variable to the change in any of the independable variables. If Y=f(X), i.e., Y depends on X, then the elasticity of Y with respect of X is:

Elasticity = Percentage change in dependable variable / Percentage change in independable variable

Elasticity of Demand:  The elasticity of demand is the measure of responsiveness of demand for a commodity to the changes in any of its determinants. The determinants are the commodity’s own price, income, price of related goods (substitutes and complements), and consumers expectations regarding future price.

The elasticity of demand can be calculated with respect to each of the determinants.

Price Elasticity of Demand: If the price of a commodity changes, then do consumers change their attitude in buying that commodity? The answer may be one of the following?

•   They do not change their attitude;
•   They slightly change their attitude;
•   They change their attitude drastically.

How much consumers respond to the price changes is measured by price elasticity of demand. In other words, the response of consumers to a change in price is measured by the price elasticity of demand. Specially, the price elasticity of demand refers to the percentage change in quantity.   

Price elasticity of demand = Percentage change in quantity demand rate / Percentage change in price.

Determinants of Price Elasticity of Demand: The price elasticity of demand is influenced by all the determinants of demand. The following determinants are worth noting:

Nature of the Goods (Luxuries versus Necessities): Necessities such as food stuff are price inelastic, means they are not very responsive to change in price because people do not reduce their consumption of price even if the price is very high. People can not live without food. There, rise in price cannot influence the demand for necessities very much. On the other hand, goo such as air conditioner, decoration items, etc. are price elastic, means they are very responsive to changes in prices. People can postpone the consumption of luxury goods when their prices rise.

Availability of Close Substitutes: If consumers can easily get a good substitute Y for a product X, they will switch readily to Y if the rice of X rises. For example, if the price of Close-UP toothpaste rises, people will switch readily to any other brands such as Pepsodent, Colgate, etc. On the other hand if the substitutes of any commodity are not easily available the elasticity will be low, like the elasticity of demand for personal computer.

Fraction of the Income Absorbed: If only a small fraction on income is spent on a good, then a change in its price has little impact on the consumer’s overall budget. In contrast, even a small rise in the price of a good that commands a large part of a consumer’s budget induces the consumer to make a radical reappraisal of expenditures. For example, we can think about the elasticity of demand for textbooks and chewing gum. If price of textbooks doubles, there will be a big decrease in the quantity of textbooks bought. Thus students will share and photocopy the textbooks instead of buying new ones. If the chewing gum doubles also, there will be no change in the quantity of gum demanded. The difference is because books take a large proportion of the budget, while gum takes only a tiny portion.

Time: The demand for many products is more elastic in the long run than in the short run. Consumers may not immediately reduce their purchases very much when the price of chicken rises 10%, but in time they may shift to beef or fish. Therefore, since consumers do not reduce the demand for a commodity immediately after the rise in its price, the demand for that commodity is inelastic in the short run. But if the price of the chicken remains high for a long time, then consumers switch to any convenient or less costly substitutes for chicken, which make the demand for chicken elastic in the long run.

Alternative Uses of a Commodity: The more the uses of a commodity, the highly elastic is the demand for it. For example, if the price of milk falls, the demand of milk will increase more than the proportionate fall in its price, because milk can be used in different purposes such as in making curds, ghees, butter, sweets, etc. Therefore, the demand for milk is highly elastic.

Elasticity of Supply: The elasticity of supply measures the response of quantity supplied to the changes in any of its determinants.

Price Elasticity of Supply: The price elasticity of supply measures the responsiveness of the quantity supplied of a commodity to a change in its price. The formula used to calculate the price elasticity of supply:               

Price elasticity of supply = Percentage change in quantity supplied / Percentage change in price.

Cross Elasticity: In cross elasticity, we examine the effect of the percentage change in the quantity demand rate for one product with respect to percentage change in the price of another product. For example, Econo Ball Pen and Writer Ball Pen have a high cross elasticity of demand. The producer of Econo Ball Pen is thus in competition with the producer of Writer Ball Pen. If  the If the Econo Ball Pen company rises its price, it will lose substantial sales to the Writer Ball Pen producer.

Income Elasticity of Demand: Income elasticity of demand is defined as the ratio of percentage change in quantity demand rate with respect to percentage change in income. 

Income Elasticity of Demand = Percentage change in quantity demand rate / Percentage change in income.

Elasticity of Demand Analysis:

If Ed = 0; the product is perfectly inelastic, which means that when prices of such products change, there is absolutely no reaction among the consumers. Example, very luxury products.

If Ed < 1; the product is highly inelastic, which means that when prices of such products change, there is almost no or very little reaction among the consumers. Example, nearly luxury products.

If Ed = 1; the product is perfectly elastic, which means that when prices of such products change, there will 100% reaction among the consumers. Example, very essential products.

If Ed > 1; the product is highly elastic, which means that when prices of such products change, there will be huge reaction among the consumers. Example, nearly essential products.

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