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691
Cricket / Bangladesh cricket team
« on: April 23, 2017, 10:13:09 AM »
Source https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bangladesh_national_cricket_team
The Bangladesh national cricket team (Bengali: বাংলাদেশ জাতীয় ক্রিকেট দল), also known as The Tigers, represents Bangladesh in international cricket. It is administered by the Bangladesh Cricket Board (BCB). Bangladesh is a full member of the International Cricket Council (ICC) with Test and One Day International (ODI) status. It played its first Test match in November 2000 against India in Dhaka, becoming the tenth Test-playing nation.

Bangladesh's first official foray into international cricket came in the 1979 ICC Trophy in England. On 31 March 1986, Bangladesh played its first ODI match, against Pakistan in the Asia Cup. For a long time, football was the most popular sport in Bangladesh, but cricket gradually became very popular – particularly in urban areas – and by the late 1990s had surpassed football.


Bangladesh made its full debut in international cricket in the 1986 Asia Cup.
In 1997, Bangladesh won the ICC Trophy in Malaysia and thus qualified for its first Cricket World Cup to participate in England in 1999. There, it defeated Pakistan – causing much upset – and also Scotland. On 26 June 2000, Bangladesh was granted full ICC membership.

Bangladesh holds the record for most consecutive losses in Tests (21, between 2000 and 2002) and ODIs (23, between 2001 and 2004). After gaining full member status with the ICC, Bangladesh had to wait until 2004 for its first ODI win since the 1999 World Cup. The team on the losing side on that occasion was Zimbabwe, who also participated in Bangladesh's maiden Test victory in 2005; by securing a draw in the second match, Bangladesh won their first Test series. In 2009 Bangladesh toured the West Indies for two Tests and by winning both secured their first overseas series victory.

As of 6 April 2017, Bangladesh has played 100 Tests, winning nine tests among them. Its first victory was against team Zimbabwe, and the next two came against the West Indian team. Results have improved since then with draws earned both at home and abroad against New Zealand, Sri Lanka, Pakistan, India and South Africa and wins against Zimbabwe, England and most recently Sri Lanka.They played their 100th Test when they toured Sri Lanka in March 2017.
The team has been more successful in ODIs, having won 102 of its 324 matches.[11] It has also played 67 Twenty20 Internationals, winning 21.However the limited over success is due to the wins against Zimbabwe and associate members (65 ODI wins and 13 T20I wins respectively)
The first test run in the history of Bangladesh Cricket came from the bat of Mehrab Hossain, who also scored the first ever ODI hundred by an individual player for Bangladesh in 1999. Captained by Naimur Rahman, Bangladesh lost by nine wickets, although Wisden noted that they "surpassed all expectations by matching their neighbours, and at times even enjoying the upper hand".[36] Aminul Islam Bulbul scored 145 in the first innings, becoming the third person to have scored a century in their team's first Test; Rahman took six wickets for 132 runs, the second-best bowling figures in a country's maiden Test. In March 2001, former Australian Test cricketer Trevor Chappell was appointed coach.[37] The following month Bangladesh embarked on a tour of Zimbabwe to play two Tests and three ODIs. Zimbabwe, who at the time were ranked ninth out of the ten Test teams, won all five matches. Bangladesh took part in the 2001–02 Asian Test Championship, the second and final time the championship was held and the first the team had been eligible to play in. They lost both their matches by an innings. Mohammad Ashraful made his debut in the series and became the youngest player to score a Test century in his first match. In November, Bangladesh hosted Zimbabwe for two Tests and three ODIs. The opening Test was curtailed by bad weather and ended in a draw; after losing their first five Tests, it was the first time Bangladesh had avoided defeat. Zimbabwe won all the remaining matches. After the Test series wicketkeeper Khaled Mashud replaced Rahman as captain. The following month Bangladesh journeyed to New Zealand for two Test matches. Bangladesh's batsmen struggled in unfamiliar conditions and the team slumped to two innings defeats.

In January 2002 Bangladesh lost two Tests and three ODIs against Sri Lanka. At this point, they had lost ten of their first eleven Tests; only South Africa had struggled as much in their introduction to Test cricket, also losing ten of their first eleven matches. Chappell blamed Bangladesh's batsmen for the loss, saying "they commit the same mistakes again and again, and need to learn to apply themselves, to bat in sessions".[42] In April, former Pakistan Test cricketer Mohsin Kamal replaced Chappell as coach. When Bangladesh toured Sri Lanka in July and August they were on the receiving end of Sri Lanka's largest margin of victory in Test cricket: an innings and 196 runs. Bangladesh lost both Tests and all three ODIs on the tour, recording their 50th defeat in 53 ODIs. Repeated poor performances prompted people to question whether Bangladesh had been granted Test status too soon. Test and ODI whitewashes followed in South Africa in October. Wisden noted that "Time and again ... came the mantra that [Bangladesh] would learn from the experience, that they could only improve by playing against the best, that there was genuine talent in the squad. But it wore thin."The final defeat set a record for most consecutive losses in ODIs (23), beating the previous record which was also held by Bangladesh. When the West Indies toured in November and December, Bangladesh lost both Test and two out of the three ODIs, and one ended in no result.[46] South Africa hosted the 2003 World Cup in February and March. Bangladesh lost five of their six matches (one ended in no result),[47] including fixtures against Canada, who hadn't played international cricket since the 1979 World Cup,and Kenya, who eventually made the semifinals of the tournament

692
Hockey / ICE HOCKEY
« on: April 23, 2017, 10:08:47 AM »
Source http://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.ca/en/article/ice-hockey/
The word "hockey" is probably derived from the French hoquet ("shepherd's crook"), referring to the shape of the stick, and the nickname "shinny," for informal hockey, likely comes from the game's connections to shinty. It is unclear precisely where and when ice hockey originated, but it is doubtless connected to the stick-and-ball games of bandy, shinty and hurley, which were brought to the North American colonies in one form or another by students or the military in the 19th century. Montréal, Windsor (Nova Scotia), and Kingston (Ontario) have all claimed to be the birthplace of ice hockey, but there is little clear evidence to pinpoint the game’s origins. The first game of organized ice hockey, as we would recognize it today, was in Montréal in 1875, where J.G.A. Creighton, a McGill student, established a set of formal rules. The key innovation was the substitution of a flat, wooden disc (puck), which offered the players more control than they had over a ball, and which was less likely to bounce and injure spectators. The last quarter of the 19th century was the great period of social organization, and during this time many sports moved away from unwritten rules and widely differing local variation towards standardization. In Canada, Montréal took the lead in organizing competitive sports, including ice hockey, cycling, and lacrosse.
Organization of the Sport and Origins of the Stanley Cup
In 1879 the first organized team, the McGill University Hockey Club, was formed, and with the advent of a basic set of rules, the sport quickly spread across Canada. The first "world championship" was held in 1883 at the Montreal Ice Carnival and was won by McGill. Even though the winter carnival hockey tournament was considered a “world championship,” only teams from Eastern Canada participated, according to the Montreal Gazette. The first national association, known as the Amateur Hockey Association of Canada, was formed in 1886, with representatives from Québec City, Montréal and Ottawa. A group of colleges, universities, and military and athletic clubs formed the Ontario Hockey Association in 1890. Governor General Lord Stanley donated a trophy in 1893 for the national championship, and the first Stanley Cup game was played 22 March 1893, with Montreal AAA victorious before a crowd of 5000.
Early hockey was played in rudimentary conditions, mostly outdoors on patches of natural ice, with snowbanks for boards and wooden posts for goals. There were nine players per side on the ice, and the puck could not be passed forward. The onside rule and primitive face-off ("bully") were adapted from rugby.
With speed and rough play the game had immediate attraction, and strong local rivalries developed. The sport spread to American universities, beginning with Yale in 1893. Hockey was first played in Europe in Vienna in 1885. Belgium, Bohemia, France, Great Britain, and Switzerland formed the International Ice Hockey Federation in 1908, and Germany joined in 1909.
The Winnipeg Falcons won the first Olympic gold medal in hockey (and the first international world championship) at the Olympic Games in Antwerp, Belgium, in 1920. The Toronto Granites overwhelmed all opposition to win Canada’s second Olympic gold medal in hockey, at the first Olympic Winter Games in 1924 in Chamonix, France. The University of Toronto Grads won again for Canada in 1928 in St. Moritz, Switzerland.
Growth of Professionalism
The development of hockey in Canada was profoundly changed by the growth and final ascendancy of professionalism. In the prevailing climate of the late 19th century playing for money was considered immoral, but many players accepted money secretly. The first overtly professional league, the International Professional Hockey League, was formed in 1904 with teams from Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania; Sault Ste. Marie, Ontario; and Houghton, Calumet, and Sault Ste. Marie, Michigan. Most of the best players were Canadian; they commanded extravagant salaries, lived nomadically from one season to the next, and played for the highest bidder. At one time, Fred "Cyclone" Taylor was the highest-paid athlete in North America.
The Ontario Professional League, organized for the 1908 season, was the first openly professional league in Canada, and lasted until 1911. The Eastern Canada Hockey Association turned professional in November 1908, but folded in 1909. The rival National Hockey Association, which originally comprised seven teams in Ontario and Quebec, was formed in 1909 and reorganized in 1917 as the National Hockey League.
In 1911, the Pacific Coast Hockey Association (PCHA) was formed. The winner of the PCHA played the winner of the NHA/NHL for the Stanley Cup from 1914–1921. The PCHA had eight teams in British Columbia, Washington and Oregon throughout its league history. The Vancouver Millionaires won the Stanley Cup in 1915. Starting in 1922, teams from the Western Canada Hockey League also had a chance to win the Stanley Cup, with the Edmonton Eskimos advancing to the final in 1923 and the Calgary Tigers advancing to the final in 1924. The PCHA merged with the Western Canada Hockey League (WCHL) for the 1924–25 season, with the Victoria Cougars winning the Stanley Cup in 1925. As of 1926, only teams from the NHL had the chance to win the Stanley Cup. The WCHL meanwhile dissolved in 1926.
Professional hockey soon required indoor stadiums, artificial ice, and large payrolls. Successful teams in smaller centres, such as the Renfrew Millionaires, disappeared; the NHL teams were all in larger cities, for example, the Montreal Canadiens, Montreal Wanderers, Montreal Maroons, Ottawa Senators, Toronto St. Pats and, briefly, Quebec Bulldogs and Hamilton Tigers.
Expansion and Dominance of the NHL
In the 1920s, the NHL successfully moved into the lucrative urban market of the US, adding the Boston Bruins (1924), the New York Americans (1925), the Pittsburgh Pirates (1925), the New York Rangers (1926), the Chicago Black Hawks (1926), and the Detroit Cougars (1926). However, almost every one of the players came from Canada.
The NHL dominated hockey, monopolized players, and controlled salaries and player movement. A few exceptional players were paid up to $10,000 per season, but in the 1920s the average salary had dropped to $900, despite player protests and a threatened strike. After 1945 the controversial C-Form gave NHL teams exclusive control over the future careers of boys from age 15. The sole purpose of amateur junior hockey became the development of players for the NHL — not to win titles or to represent a community, but to identify individual prospects.
Towards the Modern Game: Rule Changes
The present form of the sport took shape in the professional leagues, specifically the NHL and the Pacific Coast Hockey Association. Key innovations were three 20-minute periods (1910), six players (1911), and a gradual relaxation of the rule against the forward pass: allowed between blue lines (1918), within any of the three zones (1929—30), and across blue lines (1930–31). The red line was added in 1943–44. The result was a faster game and more team play.
The 1920s and 1930s
Although competition remained keen in smaller centres for the amateur trophies, the Allan Cup and Memorial Cup, the focus remained on the NHL. The Ottawa Senators dominated the 1920s, with six league titles and four Stanley Cup victories, but the team folded in 1934.
Some early exploits live on: Joe Malone scored seven goals in one game in 1920; George Hainsworth won the Vézina Trophy in its first three years; and in March 1923 Foster Hewitt broadcast a game on radio for the first time. Outstanding players of the era included Frank "King" Clancy, Charlie Conacher, Bill Cook, Aurèle Joliat, Lester Patrick, and Nels Stewart. Howie Morenz was the flashiest player, and Eddie Shore the premier defenceman.
The NHL in the 1940s and 1950s
The schedule continued to increase, from 24 games in 1919–20 to 48 games in 1931–32 and 70 games in 1949–50. The number of teams dwindled to six, however, with only the Toronto Maple Leafs and the Montreal Canadiens in Canada in 1942. The Toronto Maple Leafs, led by Walter "Turk" Broda, Syl Apps, Ted Kennedy, and Max Bentley, were the dominant team of the 1940s, winning the Stanley Cup six times in 10 years. But Maurice "Rocket" Richard of the Canadiens was clearly the outstanding offensive player, scoring 50 goals in 50 games in 1944–45, including five goals and three assists in one game.
The outstanding team of the early 1950s was the Detroit Red Wings, led by Gordie Howe (who won the scoring championship five times and the Hart Trophy four times in the decade), Red Kelly, Ted Lindsay, and Terry Sawchuk. In the mid-1950s the Montreal Canadiens built possibly the most powerful team in NHL history, with Maurice and Henri Richard, Bernie Geoffrion, Jean Béliveau, Jacques Plante, Dickie Moore, Doug Harvey, and others. The Canadiens won the Stanley Cup six times, including a record five straight.
The 1960s and Expansion of the NHL
Chicago managed its first Stanley Cup victory in 23 years in 1960–61, led by the brilliant Bobby Hull, Stan Mikita and Glenn Hall. Toronto won the Stanley Cup four more times before the league expanded in 1967, and Montreal began another string with five Stanley Cups in the 1960s. In 1967, the NHL expanded into six American centres: Los Angeles, Oakland, St. Louis, Minnesota, Pittsburgh, and Philadelphia. The Vancouver Canucks were added in 1970–71, along with Buffalo.
Scoring Greats
The sport increasingly emphasized scoring and offensive play. Scoring increased in the diluted league, and Phil Esposito of the Boston Bruins set new records for goals (76) and points (152) in a season, while defenceman Bobby Orr revolutionized his position, becoming the first defenceman to win the scoring championship. The offensive emphasis of the sport was typified in the 1980s by the incredible scoring feats of Wayne Gretzky, which are perhaps unmatched in any sport, and of Mario Lemieux.
The World Hockey Association and Merger with the NHL
The NHL's monopoly of professional hockey was broken in 1971 when the World Hockey Association was organized. In the WHA’s first season, there were 135 players in the league with NHL experience, including Bobby Hull, Bernie Parent, John McKenzie and Brian Conacher. Hockey legend Gordie Howe would join his sons, Marty and Mark, in Houston the following season. The WHA began with 12 teams and grew to 14 before rising expenses and dwindling crowds reduced it to 7 in 1978–79.
In 1979 the feud between the rival leagues ended with a merger, as the Winnipeg Jets, Edmonton Oilers, Québec Nordiques, and Hartford Whalers were assimilated by the NHL. The competition for players had substantially raised salaries and finally brought NHL teams to more Canadian cities. In 1980 a team was moved from Atlanta, Georgia, to become the Calgary Flames. Further expansion in the 1990s resulted in Ottawa re-establishing the Senators.
In 1983–84 Edmonton became the first of the ex-WHA teams to win the Stanley Cup, ending a four-year reign by the New York Islanders; the high-scoring Oilers captured the cup four of the next six seasons before being dismantled by the team's owner. In the early 1990s, Lemieux's Pittsburgh Penguins became the dominant team.
Change and Challenge in the 1990s
However, skyrocketing salaries led to financial difficulties for several franchises. The Québec Nordiques succumbed in 1995 and were relocated to Denver. In 1996 the Winnipeg Jets were also sold, to a group in Phoenix.
The sport faced another significant event at the close of the decade when Wayne Gretzky, widely regarded as the game's greatest player, retired in April 1999.
Fiscal Challenges in the 2000s
By 2000, with the addition of the Minnesota Wild and Columbus Blue Jackets that year, the NHL had expanded to 30 teams. Yet Canadian teams were increasingly pressured to compete financially with American markets, and Toronto was the only Canadian team to consistently play to sell-out crowds. The NHL's Canadian Assistance Program offered aid only when teams could demonstrate their viability, and for most teams in Canada, viability was threatened by declining attendance. In 1999 the Ottawa Senators' management announced that unless the federal government was willing to offer financial support, the Senators would be the next Canadian team sold to the US. A startling announcement in January 2000 outlined how the federal government would offer annual aid to Canadian hockey teams until 2004. The proposal was vehemently criticized, however, and immediately retracted, but the Senators remained.
Player Lockout 2004-05
The pressure continued to mount as a result of the players' resistance to a salary cap, and in 2004 team owners enforced a lockout banning members of the NHL Players' Association (hockey players) from play, lasting 310 days from late-2004 to mid-2005. A salary cap of $39 million (US) per team and a significant reduction in players' salaries was the result of the strike, but it was the first time a major North American sports league had lost an entire season due to a labour dispute. It also resulted in cancellation of the Stanley Cup playoffs, and for only the second time in its history the cup was not awarded.
Canadian Teams and the Stanley Cup Since 1993
The last time a Canadian team won the Stanley Cup was in 1993, when the Montreal Canadiens defeated the Los Angeles Kings. The following year, the Vancouver Canucks made it to the finals, but were beaten by the New York Rangers. Since 2004, four Canadian franchises have qualified for the Stanley Cup final, only to be defeated by an American team. In 2004, the Calgary Flames lost to the Tampa Bay Lightning; in 2006 the Edmonton Oilers lost to the Carolina Hurricanes; in 2007 the Ottawa Senators lost to the Anaheim Ducks; and in 2011 the Vancouver Canucks lost to the Boston Bruins. The fact that Calgary, Edmonton, and Ottawa lost to three American Sun Belt franchises was difficult for many Canadian hockey fans to accept. However, it was nothing like the scene in Vancouver on 15 June 2011. Immediately after the Vancouver Canucks lost to the Bruins in game seven of the 2011 Stanley Cup final, rioting broke out in downtown Vancouver. There had been rioting before, most notably the Richard Riot in Montréal on 17 March 1955, but nothing on this scale. Police and other cars were set on fire, and many downtown Vancouver businesses were seriously damaged. As of 14 June 2013, according to CBC News, Vancouver police had recommended a total of 1086 charges against 325 suspects.

693
Hockey / History of hockey
« on: April 23, 2017, 09:56:22 AM »
Source https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hockey
Games played with curved sticks and a ball can be found in the histories of many cultures. In Egypt, 4000-year-old carvings feature teams with sticks and a projectile, hurling dates to before 1272 BC in Ireland, and there is a depiction from approximately 600 BC in Ancient Greece, where the game may have been called kerētízein or (κερητίζειν) because it was played with a horn or horn-like stick (kéras, κέρας).[5] In Inner Mongolia, the Daur people have been playing beikou, a game similar to modern field hockey, for about 1,000 years.[6]

Most evidence of hockey-like games during the Middle Ages is found in legislation concerning sports and games. The Galway Statute enacted in Ireland in 1527 banned certain types of ball games, including games using "hooked" (written "hockie", similar to "hooky") sticks.

...at no tyme to use ne occupye the horlinge of the litill balle with hockie stickes or staves, nor use no hande ball to play withoute walles, but only greate foote balle.

By the 19th century, the various forms and divisions of historic games began to differentiate and coalesce into the individual sports defined today. Organizations dedicated to the codification of rules and regulations began to form, and national and international bodies sprang up to manage domestic and international competition.
Bandy is played with a ball on a football field-sized ice arena (bandy rink), typically outdoors, and with many rules similar to association football. It is played professionally in Russia and Sweden and is considered a national sport in Russia. The sport is recognised by the IOC; its international governing body is the Federation of International Bandy.

Bandy has its roots in England in the 19th century, was originally called "hockey on the ice",[9] and spread from England to other European countries around 1900; a similar Russian sport can also be seen as a predecessor and in Russia, bandy is sometimes called "Russian hockey". Bandy World Championships have been played since 1957 and Women's Bandy World Championships since 2004. There are national club championships in many countries and the top clubs in the world play in the Bandy World Cup every year.
Ice hockey is played between two teams of skaters on a large flat area of ice, using a three-inch-diameter (76.2 mm) vulcanized rubber disc called a puck. This puck is often frozen before high-level games to decrease the amount of bouncing and friction on the ice. The game is played all over North America, Europe and to varying extents in many other countries around the world. It is the most popular sport in Canada, Finland, Latvia, the Czech Republic, and Slovakia. Ice hockey is the national sport of Latvia[12] and the national winter sport of Canada.[13] Ice hockey is played at a number of levels, by all ages.

Further information: Minor hockey
The governing body of international play is the 77-member International Ice Hockey Federation (IIHF). Men's ice hockey has been played at the Winter Olympics since 1924, and was in the 1920 Summer Olympics. Women's ice hockey was added to the Winter Olympics in 1998. North America's National Hockey League (NHL) is the strongest professional ice hockey league, drawing top ice hockey players from around the globe.[citation needed] The NHL rules are slightly different from those used in Olympic ice hockey over many categories.[citation needed] International ice hockey rules were adopted from Canadian rules in the early 1900s.

The contemporary sport developed in Canada from European and native influences. These included various stick and ball games similar to field hockey, bandy and other games where two teams push a ball or object back and forth with sticks. These were played outdoors on ice under the name "hockey" in England throughout the 19th century, and even earlier under various other names. In Canada, there are 24 reports[16] of hockey-like games in the 19th century before 1875 (five of them using the name "hockey"). The first organized and recorded game of ice hockey was played indoors in Montreal, Quebec, Canada, on March 3, 1875, and featured several McGill University students.

Ice hockey sticks are long L-shaped sticks made of wood, graphite, or composites with a blade at the bottom that can lie flat on the playing surface when the stick is held upright and can legally curve either way, for left- or right-handed players

694
History / Adolf Hitler
« on: April 22, 2017, 09:24:46 PM »
Adolf Hitler was the leader of Nazi Germany from 1934 to 1945. He initiated fascist policies that led to World War II and the deaths of at least 11 million people, including the mass murder of an estimated 6 million Jews.
Born in Austria in 1889, Adolf Hitler rose to power in German politics as leader of the National Socialist German Workers Party, also known as the Nazi Party. Hitler was chancellor of Germany from 1933 to 1945, serving as dictator for the bulk of his time in power. His policies precipitated World War II and led to the genocide known as the Holocaust, which resulted in the deaths of some 6 million Jews and another 5 million noncombatants. With defeat on the horizon, Hitler committed suicide with wife Eva Braun on April 30, 1945, in his Berlin bunker.
Dictator Adolf Hitler was born in Braunau am Inn, Austria, on April 20, 1889, and was the fourth of six children born to Alois Hitler and Klara Polzl. As a child, Hitler clashed frequently with his emotionally harsh father, who also didn't approve of his son's later interest in fine art as a career. Following the death of his younger brother, Edmund, in 1900, Hitler became detached and introverted. He also showed an early interest in German nationalism, rejecting the authority of Austria-Hungary. This nationalism would become the motivating force of Hitler's life.

Alois died suddenly in 1903. Two years later, Adolf's mother allowed her son to drop out of school. After her death in December 1907, he moved to Vienna and worked as a casual laborer and watercolor painter. Hitler applied to the Academy of Fine Arts twice and was rejected both times. Lacking money outside of an orphan's pension and funds from selling postcards, he stayed in homeless shelters. Hitler later pointed to these years as the time when he first cultivated his anti-Semitism, though there is some debate about this account.

In 1913, Hitler relocated to Munich. At the outbreak of World War I, he applied to serve in the German army. He was accepted in August 1914, though he was still an Austrian citizen. Although Hitler spent much of his time away from the front lines (with some reports that his recollections of his time on the field were generally exaggerated), he was present at a number of significant battles and was wounded at the Somme. He was decorated for bravery, receiving the Iron Cross First Class and the Black Wound Badge.
Hitler became embittered over the collapse of the war effort. The experience reinforced his passionate German patriotism, and he was shocked by Germany's surrender in 1918. Like other German nationalists, he purportedly believed that the German army had been betrayed by civilian leaders and Marxists. He found the Treaty of Versailles degrading, particularly the demilitarization of the Rhineland and the stipulation that Germany accept responsibility for starting the war.
Party Leadership and Imprisonment

After World War I, Hitler returned to Munich and continued to work for the military as an intelligence officer. While monitoring the activities of the German Workers’ Party (DAP), Hitler adopted many of the anti-Semitic, nationalist and anti-Marxist ideas of party founder Anton Drexler. Hitler joined the DAP in September 1919.

To increase its appeal, the DAP changed its name to the Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei (NSDAP), often abbreviated to Nazi. Hitler personally designed the party banner, appropriating the swastika symbol and placing it in a white circle on a red background. He soon gained notoriety for his vitriolic speeches against the Treaty of Versailles, rival politicians, Marxists and Jews. In 1921, Hitler replaced Drexler as NSDAP chairman.

Hitler's fervid beer-hall speeches began attracting regular audiences. Early followers included army captain Ernst Rohm, the head of the Nazi paramilitary organization the Sturmabteilung (SA), which protected meetings and frequently attacked political opponents.

On November 8, 1923, Hitler and the SA stormed a public meeting featuring Bavarian prime minister Gustav Kahr at a large beer hall in Munich. Hitler announced that the national revolution had begun and declared the formation of a new government. After a short struggle that led to several deaths, the coup known as the "Beer Hall Putsch" failed.

Hitler was arrested and tried for high treason. He served nine months in prison, during which time he dictated most of the first volume of Mein Kampf ("My Struggle") to his deputy, Rudolf Hess. A work of propaganda and falsehoods, the book laid out Hitler's plans for transforming German society into one based on race.
Rise to Power

With millions unemployed, the Great Depression in Germany provided a political opportunity for Hitler. Germans were ambivalent to the parliamentary republic and increasingly open to extremist options. In 1932, Hitler ran against 84-year-old Paul von Hindenburg for the presidency. Hitler came in second in both rounds of the election, garnering more than 36 percent of the vote in the final count. The results established Hitler as a strong force in German politics. Hindenburg reluctantly agreed to appoint Hitler as chancellor in order to promote political balance.

Hitler used his position as chancellor to form a de facto legal dictatorship. The Reichstag Fire Decree, announced after a suspicious fire at parliament, suspended basic rights and allowed detention without trial. Hitler also engineered the passage of the Enabling Act, which gave his cabinet full legislative powers for a period of four years and allowed for deviations from the constitution.

Having achieved full control over the legislative and executive branches of government, Hitler and his political allies embarked on a systematic suppression of the remaining political opposition. By the end of June, the other parties had been intimidated into disbanding. On July 14, 1933, Hitler's Nazi Party was declared the only legal political party in Germany. In October of that year, Hitler ordered Germany's withdrawal from the League of Nations.

Military opposition was also punished. The demands of the SA for more political and military power led to the Night of the Long Knives, which took place from June 30 to July 2, 1934. Rohm, a perceived rival, and other SA leaders, along with a number of Hitler's political enemies, were rounded up and shot.

The day before Hindenburg's death in August 1934, the cabinet had enacted a law abolishing the office of president, combining its powers with those of the chancellor. Hitler thus became head of state as well as head of government and was formally named leader and chancellor. As head of state, Hitler became supreme commander of the armed forces.
The Rise of Anti-Semitism

From 1933 until the start of the war in 1939, Hitler and his Nazi regime instituted hundreds of laws and regulations to restrict and exclude Jews in society. The Anti-Semitic laws were issued throughout all levels of government, making good on the Nazis’ pledge to persecute Jews if the party came to power. On April 1, 1933, Hitler implemented a national boycott of Jewish businesses, followed by the introduction of the ”Law for the Restoration of the Professional Civil Service" of April 7, 1933, which was one of the first laws to persecute Jews by excluding them from state service. This was a Nazi implementation of the Aryan Paragraph, a clause calling for the exclusion of Jews and non-Aryans from organizations, employment and eventually all aspects of public life.

In April 1933, additional legislation furthered the persecution of Jews including laws restricting the number of Jewish students at schools and universities, limiting Jews working in medical and legal professions, and revoking the licenses of Jewish tax consultants. In April 1933, the Main Office for Press and Propaganda of the German Student Union called for "Action Against the Un-German Spirit,” prompting students to burn more than 25,000 “Un-German” books, ushering in an era of censorship and Nazi propaganda. In 1934, Jewish actors were forbidden from performing in film or in the theater.

On September 15, 1935, the Reichstag introduced the Nuremberg Laws which defined a "Jew" as anyone with three or four grandparents who were Jewish, regardless of whether the person considered themselves Jewish or observed the religion. The Nuremberg Laws also set forth the "Law for the Protection of German Blood and German Honour," which banned marriage between non-Jewish and Jewish Germans; and the Reich Citizenship Law, which deprived "non-Aryans" of the benefits of German citizenship.

Hitler's eugenic policies also targeted children with physical and developmental disabilities, and later authorized a euthanasia program for disabled adults. His regime also persecuted homosexuals, arresting an estimated 100,000 men from 1933 to 1945, some of whom were imprisoned or sent to concentration camps. At the camps, gay prisoners were forced to wear pink triangles to identify their homosexuality, which Nazis considered a crime and a disease.

Hitler also promoted anti-smoking campaigns across the country. These campaigns stemmed from Hitler's self-imposed dietary restrictions, which included abstinence from alcohol and meat. Fueled by fanaticism over what he believed was a superior Aryan race, he encouraged Germans to keep their bodies pure of any intoxicating or unclean substance.

In 1936, Hitler and his regime muted their Anti-Semitic rhetoric and actions when Germany hosted the Winter and Summer Olympic Games, in an effort to avoid criticism on the world stage and a negative impact on tourism. However, after the Olympics, the Nazi persecution of Jews intensified with the continued "Aryanization" of Jewish businesses, which involved the firing of Jewish workers and takeover by non-Jewish owners.
World War II & The Holocaust

In 1938, Hitler, along with several other European leaders, signed the Munich Agreement. The treaty ceded the Sudetenland districts to Germany, reversing part of the Versailles Treaty. As a result of the summit, Hitler was named Time magazine's Man of the Year for 1938. This diplomatic win only whetted his appetite for a renewed German dominance.

The Nazis continued to segregate Jews from German society, banning them from public school, universities, theaters, sports events and "Aryan" zones. Jewish doctors were also barred from treating "Aryan" patients. Jews were required to carry identity cards and, in the fall of 1938, Jewish people had to have their passports stamped with a "J."

On November 9 and 10, 1938, a wave of violent anti-Jewish pogroms swept Germany, Austria and parts of the Sudetenland. Nazis destroyed synagogues, vandalized Jewish homes, schools and businesses, and close to 100 Jews were murdered. Called Kristallnacht, the "Night of Crystal" or the "Night of Broken Glass," referring to the broken glass left in the wake of the destruction, the pogroms escalated the Nazi persecution of Jews to another level of brutality and violence. Almost 30,000 Jewish men were arrested and sent to concentration camps, signaling more horrors to come.

On September 1, 1939, Germany invaded Poland. In response, Britain and France declared war on Germany two days later. Between 1939 and 1945, Nazis and their collaborators were responsible for the deaths of at least 1 million noncombatants, including about six million Jews, representing two-thirds of the Jewish population in Europe. As part of Hitler's "Final Solution," the genocide enacted by the regime would come to be known as the Holocaust.

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Do Fast-Food Restaurants Fall Short on Their Health Claims?
At fast food restaurants, most parents buy their children unhealthy items that can account for up to 51 percent of a child's daily calorie needs, even though healthier options are available, the study shows.
Credit: Dreamstime

Fast-food restaurants are serving healthier options, although only marginally so, according to a study published last week in the American Journal of Preventive Medicine.

You may have known that changes were afoot in the fast-food restaurants most vilified by doctors for serving unhealthy fare. McDonald's, Burger King and others now offer salad, fruit, and skim milk. The new offerings, advertised prominently, would make one think that a trip to the local burger joint is suddenly heart-healthy, and waistline-friendly.
 So, yes, you now can get a side salad. But along with adding some greens, the restaurants also have added less healthful items — in terms of calories, fat, salt, sugar, and other measures — that have minimized any nutritional gains relative to the entire menu, the study found. The restaurants analyzed were McDonald's, Burger King, Wendy's, Taco Bell, Kentucky Fried Chicken (KFC), Arby's, Jack in the Box, and Dairy Queen.

Perhaps this comes to little surprise. After all, fast food is fast food. But Hearst emphasized that the study doesn't state that fast food restaurants need to alter their menu. At issue for the researchers, in part, are the health claims that fast-food restaurants make.

"If they are claiming healthy options, they should be able to demonstrate it," Hearst said. "If they seek a socially responsible mission, they should continue to improve the nutritional quality of their menus." So, yes, you now can get a side salad. But along with adding some greens, the restaurants also have added less healthful items — in terms of calories, fat, salt, sugar, and other measures — that have minimized any nutritional gains relative to the entire menu, the study found. The restaurants analyzed were McDonald's, Burger King, Wendy's, Taco Bell, Kentucky Fried Chicken (KFC), Arby's, Jack in the Box, and Dairy Queen.

Perhaps this comes to little surprise. After all, fast food is fast food. But Hearst emphasized that the study doesn't state that fast food restaurants need to alter their menu. At issue for the researchers, in part, are the health claims that fast-food restaurants make.

"If they are claiming healthy options, they should be able to demonstrate it," Hearst said. "If they seek a socially responsible mission, they should continue to improve the nutritional quality of their menus."
 So, what's a health-conscious consumer to do for lunch aside from packing it? A salad at just about any fast-food chain might not be the answer. Analyses by the Physicians Committee for Responsible Medicine (PCRM) has found that most fast-food salads are not any more healthful than a greasy burger.

"You need to be creative" when eating at fast-food restaurants, said Ulka Agarwal, chief medical officer for the Washington, D.C.-based PCRM, a health-advocacy group that also conducts its own research.

Agarwal said to watch for unhealthy items in disguise, such as salads with bacon and fatty dressings pre-added. A salad bar can allow you to control food type and portion and steer toward largely plant-based items, she said. At Chipotle, one could order a burrito bowl with rice, beans, peppers, and onions and no sour cream. At Subway there are several low-fat, cholesterol-free sandwiches now.

But Agarwal added that sometimes, when trapped at airports or in a small city, there can be very few options.

Hearst and her co-authors also discussed the positive impact that fast-food restaurants could have on their customers' health. "Given the relative influence of the fast-food industry on the U.S. diet, fast-food restaurants are in a unique position to improve the diet quality of the U.S. population by improving the nutritional quality of menu offerings," the authors wrote.

Hearst said that the data they analyzed only reach to 2010, and that the positive trend they documented might have continued during the past three years.
Source : http://www.livescience.com/32070-fast-food-health-quality-nutrition.html

696
Food Habit / Healthy Eating
« on: April 22, 2017, 07:08:00 PM »
source https://www.helpguide.org/articles/healthy-eating/healthy-eating.htm

Healthy eating is not about strict dietary limitations, staying unrealistically thin, or depriving yourself of the foods you love. Rather, it’s about feeling great, having more energy, improving your health, and stabilizing your mood. If you feel overwhelmed by all the conflicting nutrition and diet advice out there, you’re not alone. It seems that for every expert who tells you a certain food is good for you, you’ll find another saying exactly the opposite. But by using these simple tips, you can cut through the confusion and learn how to create a tasty, varied, and healthy diet that is as good for your mind as it is for your body.
How can healthy eating improve your mental health?

We all know that eating right can help you maintain a healthy weight and avoid certain health problems, but your diet can also have a profound effect on your mood and sense of wellbeing. Studies have linked eating a typical Western diet—filled with processed meats, packaged meals, takeout food, and sugary snacks—with higher rates of depression, stress, bipolar disorder, and anxiety. Eating an unhealthy diet may even play a role in the development of mental health disorders such as ADHD, Alzheimer’s disease, and schizophrenia, or in the increased risk of suicide in young people.

Eating more fresh fruits and vegetables, cooking meals at home, and reducing your intake of sugar and refined carbohydrates, on the other hand, may help to improve mood and lower your risk for mental health issues. If you have already been diagnosed with a mental health problem, eating well can even help to manage your symptoms and regain control of your life.
What constitutes a healthy diet?

Eating a healthy diet doesn’t have to be overly complicated. While some specific foods or nutrients have been shown to have a beneficial effect on mood, it’s your overall dietary pattern that is most important. The cornerstone of a healthy diet pattern should be to replace processed food with real food whenever possible. Eating food that is as close as possible to the way nature made it can make a huge difference to the way you think, look, and feel.
Building your healthy diet

While some extreme diets may suggest otherwise, we all need a balance of protein, fat, carbohydrates, fiber, vitamins, and minerals in our diets to sustain a healthy body. You don’t need to eliminate certain categories of food from your diet, but rather select the healthiest options from each category.
Protein gives us the energy to get up and go—and keep going—while also supporting mood and cognitive function. Too much protein can be harmful to people with kidney disease, but the latest research suggests that many of us need more high-quality protein, especially as we age. That doesn’t mean you have to eat more animal products—a variety of plant-based sources of protein each day can ensure your body gets all the essential protein it needs.
Not all fat is the same. While bad fats can wreck your diet and increase your risk of certain diseases, good fats protect your brain and heart. In fact, healthy fats—such as omega-3s—are vital to your physical and emotional health. Understanding how to include more healthy fat in your diet can help improve your mood, boost your well-being, and even trim your waistline.
Carbohydrates are one of your body’s main sources of energy. But most should come from complex, unrefined carbs (vegetables, whole grains, fruit) rather than sugars and refined carbs that have been stripped of all bran, fiber, and nutrients. Cutting back on white bread, pastries, starches, and sugar can prevent rapid spikes in blood sugar, fluctuations in mood and energy, and a build-up of fat, especially around your waistline.
Eating foods high in dietary fiber (grains, fruit, vegetables, nuts, and beans) can help you stay regular and lower your risk for heart disease, stroke, and diabetes. It can also improve your skin and even help you to lose weight. Depending on your age and gender, nutrition experts recommend you eat at least 21 to 38 grams of fiber each day for optimal health. Unfortunately, most of us aren't eating even half that amount.

697
Food Habit / The Top Ten Healthy Eating Habits
« on: April 22, 2017, 07:04:53 PM »
source https://www.12wbt.com/nutrition/healthy-eating-habits


Many people who struggle with their health or weight say they've tried every diet or food plan under the sun, without any long-term success.

The changes they make end up being short term and their old eating habits soon return, leaving them disheartened and demoralised.

The reality is that there's no need to cut whole food groups or deny yourself the pleasure of eating.

On the contrary, limiting your nutritional intake will only make you feel tired, lethargic and lacking any willpower to make sensible food choices.

The key to success lies in developing healthy eating habits that will not only help you reach your goals, but will also leave you feeling full and with plenty of energy to do everything you want to do.

Healthy eating habits are all about putting changes in place that are sustainable in the long term.

Here are a few eating habits which, once you've made them part of your routine, will have you set up for life.
1. Eat Healthy Unprocessed Food

Many of the packaged foods we buy today are aimed at convenience and involve the minimum of preparation time on our part - but they're not that healthy.

They often contain high amounts of preservatives, man-made colourings and other added chemicals, and as 12WBT dietitian Georgie Moore explains, there are other downsides.

"Packaged foods tend to be higher in fat, salt and sugar than food cooked from scratch, while lacking nutrients and fibre," she says.

Get into the habit of preparing meals from unprocessed foods and you will reap the health benefits.

This means cooking with fresh vegetables, lean meat, eggs and milk and eating plenty of fruit, nuts and legumes.

Try this: One of the best healthy eating habits you can put in place is to chuck out your toxic packaged and processed foods.

Instead, stock the pantry and shelves with beautiful fresh ingredients so they're at arm's reach when you're ready to eat.
2. Switch to Healthy Whole Grains

Whole grains offer far more nutrients and fibre than their refined "white" varieties.

And in a 2012 study at the University of Copenhagen, researchers found that overweight people who ate wholegrain wheat products lost more weight than those who ate refined wheat, and they also came out with lower cholesterol.

"Whole grains tend to have a lower GI (glycaemic index), so they help keep you feeling fuller for longer and maintain your energy levels and concentration," Georgie says.

On the taste side, whole grains have more texture, flavour and nuttiness than refined ones.

Try this: As a fast and simple way to improve your eating habits, choose wholemeal or wholegrain bread next time you hit the bakery.

And in the supermarket, buy brown rice instead of white, and wholegrain pasta.

Adding whole grains such as quinoa and buckwheat to salads and other meals will add a heap of nutrients.

You can find these in a health food store or the health food aisle of your supermarket.
3. Change to Healthy Cooking Methods

The more you "do" to your food, the less it does for you.

So avoid things like deep-frying, which drenches your food in unnecessary calories, and boiling vegetables until they're drained of colour, as this will sap them of nutrients.

Try this:

    Grill or barbecue meat, fish and vegetables.
    Stir-fry meat and vegetables, using just a little olive oil or a light spray of cooking oil.
    Steam vegetables until they're lightly crunchy.
    Use herbs, spices and ground pepper instead of salt.
    Use balsamic vinegar or lemon juice instead of salad dressing.
    Make your own sauces rather than using bottled or sachet versions - for example, using fresh tomatoes as your base combined with herbs and spices.

4. Eat Healthy Portion Sizes

In today's supersized world, it can be hard to know what a healthy portion looks like.

All the advertising we see seems to be aimed at encouraging us to eat and drink a lot.

Plate sizes in restaurants get bigger and bigger, as do the servings themselves.

So it's little wonder that many of us consume more than we need on a daily basis, as our eating habits have changed without us even realising it.

Try this: "Imagine a plate on the table in front of you," says Georgie.

"For the ideal lunch, a quarter of the plate would be taken up by lean protein, another quarter would be filled with low-GI or wholegrain carbs, and the remaining half would be filled with salad or vegetables."

For dinner, eat a little less than at lunch.

"The chances are that all you'll be doing after dinner is watching TV or going to bed, so you don't actually need a lot of energy," Georgie says.

Take a look at these articles on healthy breakfasts, healthy lunches, healthy dinners and healthy snacks for some great ideas.
5. Understand Healthy Eating-Out Options

Restaurants and cafes can seem like a minefield, not least because their portions are often much bigger than we need.

It's also tempting to go for the less healthy menu options. But that doesn't mean you can't put healthy eating habits in place when you're out with friends.

Georgie suggests using the plate-portioning guide (see above) to help you when eating out. And you don't have to eat everything on your plate!

Try this:

    See if the restaurant's menu is available online and choose your meal before you go out.
    Choose an entrée-sized dish for your main course and bump it up with a healthy side salad.
    Ask for dressings and sauces to be served on the side.
    Ask for rice or extra vegetables instead of chips.
    Set aside half the dish and ask for it in a takeaway container.

6. A Food Diary Will Help Your Healthy Eating Habits

Keeping a diary of everything you eat and drink throughout the day will give you a clear picture of how much you're consuming and how healthy it is.

It's not until we write everything down that we can see where to improve.

Try this: Grab yourself a small notebook and start your diary today.

If you're unsure of how many calories are contained in the foods you're eating, a pocket-sized book such as Michelle Bridges' Australian Calorie Counter (Penguin, $9.99) will provide the answers.

Check out this story on how to keep a food diary.
7. Healthy Eating at Social Events

For most of us, it's impossible to avoid work gatherings or birthday bashes, where lots of food and alcohol are on offer, and the next day we're wracked with remorse if we've over-indulged.

Set up some healthy eating habits for these situations to stay on track.

Try this:

    Eat a healthy, filling snack to take the edge off your hunger before you arrive.
    At a buffet, fill your plate once and then stand away from the food table.
    Look for the most healthy option: a grilled piece of fish or lean meat, for example.
    Load up on salad and vegetables.
    Skip cheeses and dessert, or share a little with a friend or partner.

8. Plan Your Healthy Shopping

It's too easy to eat takeaway if there's nothing in the fridge or put together something naughty when it's filled with unhealthy foods.

But if your fridge and pantry are stocked with healthy options you'll be able to make better choices when you're hungry.

The secret to healthy shopping is to plan ahead.

Try this: Set aside a regular time to create a shopping list based on healthy options for each of your meals and snacks during the week, and then set aside a regular time to shop.
9. Treats Can be Healthy Too!

We often think of certain foods as "bad" and cut them out altogether.

However, this can set us up for failure because we end up craving them all the more and then bingeing.

Try this: Set aside one meal a week to indulge in as a treat.

This is the time to eat something you may have otherwise kept out of your healthy eating plan. And don't feel guilty about it!
10. Water: Nature's Healthy Drink

Water is essential for life - it's required for digestion, absorption and transportation of nutrients, for elimination of waste and to regulate body temperature.

According to the Australian Dietary Guidelines a healthy amount for men to drink is 2.6 litres per day and women should have 2.1 litres (or 8 to 10 cups per day).

Try this: Ditch sugar-packed soft drinks. Instead, buy yourself an aluminium drink bottle and keep it on hand, filled with water, to sip on all day.

698
Education Tours / Importance of educational Tour
« on: April 22, 2017, 06:52:15 PM »
Source : http://www.educationaltourism.org/why-us.html
Memories of school Educational trips are among the most prominent of the formative years, largely because they are a welcome break in the routine for both students and teachers. While their purpose is essentially to educate, they can also be a fun bonding experience for everyone involved.
 
Reinforcement
The trip can reinforce what a teacher has been instructing in class about a subject and help students understand the topic better.
 
Engagement

        Teachers turn trips into mobile classrooms, instructing students to collect data, then quizzing them or assigning a project based on what they learned during the outing.

 
Socialization
Taking students into a new environment gives them the experience of traveling in a group and teaches them to be respectful of the locations they visit.
 
Exposure

        Kids get to visit a place to which they have never been before. This can be particularly advantageous to students who are less fortunate and don't have the opportunity to travel.

 
Curiosity
Students who go on Educational trips find that they want to learn more about the subjects on which the trip focused.
 
Retention
The type of memories that Educational trips create, called “episodic memories,” helps children retain information for longer periods.
 

What Is the Importance of Educational trips?
What Is the Importance of Educational trips?    

Educational trips are important in many ways.
Going on a Educational  trip means more than simply leaving the school grounds. Educational trips should always have a major educational element, but the impact of Educational trips can extend much further. The importance of Educational trips includes giving students the chance to build closer bonds with their classmates, experience new environments and enjoy a day away from the classroom
 
New Sights
When students and teachers are together outside the classroom, new educational environments and experiences are possible. Students may have the opportunity to observe many things that are not available at school, including exotic wildlife, rare plants and maybe even the stars if the Educational  trip is to a planetarium. Discussing the Educational  trip beforehand is wise because it allows students to know what they will experience during their time away from school
 
Bonding
Getting away from the everyday atmosphere of the classroom gives students an opportunity to spend time with each other in a new environment. They may be able to connect on more of a personal level without the structure of the normal school day. Students may be able to spend much of the Educational  trip day in small groups, observing, chatting and learning about each other. Having a Educational  trip in the early part of the term is wise, since it will allow students to bond with classmates they may not know very well.
 
Informal Learning Environment
Educational trips provide valuable educational opportunities away from the classroom, without using textbooks and other tools used in a normal school setting. Students on Educational trips can often learn while having fun in a more informal environment. If the Educational  trip destination has staff members who do hands-on teaching with visiting students -- such as at a science center or historical museum -- the children will be excited to learn from someone new
 
Fun

        No matter how much students learn during a Educational  trip, their favorite memories may be based on their enjoyment of the day. Getting away from school for a day or even half a day is always exciting for students, and Educational trips are always highly anticipated. Students will have fun with their friends and they also may return to the classroom with a renewed focus on their schoolwork.

 
How Do Students Benefit From Educational trips?
Why Teachers Should Go on Educational trips?    

Educational trips can give students exposure to places they might not otherwise visit.
Many schools, camps and institutions offer Educational trips for students to spend several hours or days outside of the classroom. Educational trips range from local visits to civic offices or businesses to international excursions, complete with overnight stays. Whatever their scope, Educational trips can offer many advantages to the students who take them.
 
Perspective
Part of how students benefit from Educational trips is by gaining new perspectives on the world. This is especially true for more extensive Educational trips where students travel farther away from home. By coming into direct contact with a different environment or even a new culture or language, students can better understand their place in the community and develop an openness to differences in others.
 
Variety
Educational trips also function to put some variety into otherwise regimented lesson plans. Instead of spending every day in the classroom, students get to learn in a new environment with new instructors. Educational trips also may give students a chance to interact with students from other schools as they learn together or participate in group activities
 
Learning Styles
Educational trips will often cater to more than one learning style, making them excellent teaching tools for certain students. Classroom lectures apply primarily to audio learners, who learn best by listening. Visual learners can benefit from visual aids, which exist in the classroom, but are much more frequent during a Educational  trip. Finally, for tactile learners, Educational trips offer an uncommon opportunity to perform hands-on learning.
 
Classroom Supplement
It's important for instructors and school administrators to choose Educational trips that augment existing lesson plans and synchronize with classroom learning. A Educational  trip that teachers choose for these reasons can serve to illustrate difficult concepts or extend the general natural of a classroom lesson by giving more specific information. The specialists who lead school groups on Educational trips also may be able to provide professional insight from advanced study or direct experience that teachers could never provide alone.
 
Reward
Before a Educational  trip even takes place, it can begin to produce benefits for students. By not allowing students with behavioral or academic problems to participate in a Educational  trip, teachers can encourage good behavior and motivate students to work hard with the prospect of a Educational  trip looming as a reward. Even the most informative Educational trips usually have an element of recreation, making them a time to unwind for all students.
 
Why Teachers Should Go on Educational trips?
Why Teachers Should Go on Educational trips?    

Why Teachers Should Go on Educational trips
Educational trips are educational experiences that allow students to apply their lessons to the real world. These trips tend to be the most memorable moments of a student's career.
 
Educational and Relaxing
Students are more likely to learn on a Educational  trip because their minds are relaxed. They aren't worried about the competitive classroom setting.
 
Break from the Routine
Students see Educational trips as extended play time. If you find that you are approaching a topic that drains on your students, consider applying a relevant Educational  trip to make the topic more enjoyable.
 
Learn Something New
There are facts that aren't included in the textbooks that are fascinating to know. Many experts can share knowledge to further the learning process about your topic.
 
Teaches Professionalism
Teachers expect students to be on their best behavior during Educational trips. This is a way to teach students how to act properly and show their manners in a professional setting.
 
Enhanced Sense of Community
If your Educational  trip is to a local destination, students will gain a better understanding about their community. This sometimes boosts the students' interest in being an active citizen to help preserve what makes the community special.
 
Creates an Interest in New Professions
Educational trips usually involve a tour director or representative who leads the group. These representatives can give students insight into the careers that are available for those who are interested in that particular topic

699
Animals and Pets / Animal Welfare
« on: April 20, 2017, 09:46:06 PM »
 What is Animal Welfare?

In its simplest form, animal welfare refers to the relationships people have with animals and the duty they have to assure that the animals under their care are treated humanely and responsibly.
Despite its current popularity, interest in animal welfare is not a modern phenomenon. Concern for animal care and wellbeing has existed since domestication, which occurred at least 10,000 years ago in Neolithic times. Our appreciation and respect for animals led to their domestication, animal agriculture and animal husbandry, the branch of agriculture that deals with the care and breeding of animals. Many historians consider the development of agriculture to be the most important event in all of human history.

The animal welfare ethic that developed in the Neolithic era is one that obligated people to consider their animals’ welfare in order to achieve their own purposes. It set in place a mutually beneficial arrangement between people and animals that goes like this: “If we take care of the animals, the animals will take care of us.” In this ancient but enduring pact, self-interest demanded that people take good care of their animals. Amazingly, this very fundamental animal welfare ethic survives today, especially in settings where hands-on animal care continues. Today we call this special relationship the human-animal bond.
Dr. Bernard Rollin, an animal science professor at Colorado State University, argues however, that 20th century technology broke this ancient contract when it allowed us to put animals into environments and uses that didn't impair their productivity but harmed their well-being.

That defines the challenge today, the need to provide acceptable levels of animal welfare in a nation that is no longer rural and agricultural, but which in the span of 2 paradigm-shifting centuries has become urbanized and technological. In modern American society only 2% of an ever-increasing population lives on farms and only 1% practices farming as an occupation. This contrasts sharply with the mid 1800’s when 90% of Americans were farmers. If these trends continue, farming will become more concentrated in the future, a situation that makes animal welfare an even more important subject.
Source : http://www.naiaonline.org/articles/article/what-is-animal-welfare-and-why-is-it-important#sthash.lSdTFcBj.dpbs

700
Cartoon / History of cartoon
« on: April 20, 2017, 01:57:38 PM »
Source :https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Cartoon_History_of_the_Universe
The Cartoon History of the Universe is a book series about the history of the world. It is written and illustrated by American cartoonist, professor, and mathematician Larry Gonick, who started the project in 1978.[1] The final two volumes, published in 2007 and 2009, are named The Cartoon History of the Modern World volumes one and two. The final volume covers history from the late 18th century to early 2008.

Each book in the series explains a period of world history in a loosely chronological order. Though originally published in limited runs as comic books, the series is now published in trade paperback volumes of several hundred pages each. The books have been translated into many languages, including Portuguese, Greek, Czech and Polish.

While seeking a publisher, Gonick received early support from Jacqueline Kennedy Onassis, who worked as an editor at Doubleday and championed The Cartoon History of the Universe's publication.

701
Stroke / thing you can do to prevent a stroke
« on: April 20, 2017, 01:49:36 PM »
 Lower blood pressure

High blood pressure is a huge factor, doubling or even quadrupling your stroke risk if it is not controlled. "High blood pressure is the biggest contributor to the risk of stroke in both men and women," Dr. Rost says. "Monitoring blood pressure and, if it is elevated, treating it, is probably the biggest difference women can make to their vascular health."

Your ideal goal: Maintain a blood pressure of less than 120/80. But for some, a less aggressive goal (such as 140/90) may be more appropriate.

How to achieve it:

    Reduce the salt in your diet to no more than 1,500 milligrams a day (about a half teaspoon).
    Avoid high-cholesterol foods, such as burgers, cheese, and ice cream.
    Eat 4 to 5 cups of fruits and vegetables every day, one serving of fish two to three times a week, and several daily servings of whole grains and low-fat dairy.
    Get more exercise — at least 30 minutes of activity a day, and more, if possible.
    Quit smoking, if you smoke.

If needed, take blood pressure medicines.
Source
http://www.health.harvard.edu/womens-health/8-things-you-can-do-to-prevent-a-stroke

702
Fever / Home Remedies for Fever
« on: April 20, 2017, 01:43:35 PM »
Whenever the body’s temperature is higher than the normal range, it is called a fever. Although we commonly hear that 98.6 degrees F, or 37 degrees C, is considered normal, this is not a set number that applies universally to all. Normal body temperature is different for children than adults and also can vary among individuals.

According to the National Institutes of Health (NIH), a child has a fever when his or her body temperature is higher than 99.5 degrees F, or 37.5 degrees C. An adult has a fever when his or her body temperature exceeds 99 to 99.5 degrees F, or 37.2 to 37.5 degrees C.

A fever is basically a symptom of another condition or illness. A fever can occur when your body is fighting an infection, such as the flu.
Additional reasons for a fever are a response to immunization in children, ear infections, urinary tract infections, certain inflammatory diseases, gastroenteritis, autoimmune disorders, cancer, and blood clots. Sudden change in the weather and unhygienic lifestyle may also contribute to a fever.

Some of the common symptoms associated with a fever include sweating, headache, muscle ache, dehydration, weakness, slight shivering and loss of appetite.

A fever is a good thing and usually will go away within a few days. But if a fever is making you uncomfortable, you can try some simple and easy home remedies to cool the body down and make you feel better.

However, if your fever exceeds 104 degrees F, or 40 degrees C, it can become very dangerous. During such a situation, you must immediately see a doctor.
oak a wash cloth in cool tap water, wring out the excess water and then sponge areas like your armpits, feet, hands and groin to reduce the temperature.

Also, you can place cold, damp washcloths on your forehead and the back of your neck. The cloth pieces should be changed regularly after a few minutes. This remedy is beneficial when dealing with a high fever as it helps keep temperature under control.

You can also take a bath in lukewarm water to relax your body. Taking a shower, however, may not be a good idea. Plus, needless to say, take as much rest as possible as it helps the body fight the illness.

Note: Do not use very cold water as it may cause the internal body temperature to increase.
The warm nature of garlic can also lower a high fever by promoting sweating. This also helps eliminate harmful toxins from the body and speed up recovery. Plus, garlic is an antifungal and antibacterial agent that helps the body fight infections as well as ward off disease.

    Finely mince one garlic clove and add it to one cup of hot water. Steep for 10 minutes, strain and sip it slowly. Drink this twice a day and you will feel much better the next day.
    Warm a mixture of two crushed garlic cloves and two tablespoons of olive oil. Apply this mixture over the sole of each foot, leaving a few spots uncovered. Wrap your feet with gauze to keep the garlic in place and leave it on overnight. For some people, this can eliminate a fever in just one night.

Note: Garlic remedies are not recommended for pregnant ladies and small children.




source -
http://www.top10homeremedies.com/home-remedies/home-remedies-fever.html

703
Mouth / Oral Health Tips
« on: April 20, 2017, 01:34:20 PM »
Brushing, flossing, and rinsing are the ABCs of oral health, but they're only the beginning. A marvelous mouth takes more than squeezing paste out of a tube -- think improving your tooth brushing technique, ditching the daily soda habit, and saying good-bye to cigarettes.
Fizzy is fun but also part of the reason soda is so bad for your teeth. Two ingredients -- phosphoric acid and citric acid -- give soda its "bite" but also eat away at the surface of your teeth. Although the occasional soda won't hurt, a can or more a day makes your tooth enamel softer and more susceptible to cavities. Switch to water instead, adding flavor with sliced citrus or crushed berries or mint leaves.
Sugar is a major culprit in tooth decay. It fuels bacteria and acidity in your mouth, causing plaque to form and eat away at your enamel and gums. Your pearly whites are hit with up to 20 minutes of acid production for every sugar fest you indulge in, from sweetened coffee in the morning to ice cream at night. To avoid being among the 20% of people in the United States who face tooth decay every time they look in the mirror, try to cut down on sugary treats, and aim to brush and floss after every meal or snack.
You've heard it before: Quit smoking. But this time, it's your dentist talking. The nicotine and tar in cigarettes not only turn your teeth an unsightly shade of yellow, they eat away at your gums. Smoking creates a ripe environment for bacteria and plaque on your teeth and along the gum line. That harms tissue, degrades the bone that supports teeth, and, eventually, increases your risk of tooth loss. Even worse, tobacco chemicals can lead to oral cancer.

704
Teeth / 3 Natural Ways to Whiten Teeth at Home
« on: April 17, 2017, 11:01:11 AM »
1. Baking Soda and Lemon Juice Paste

Baking Soda isn’t a shocker here. Sodium bicarbonate (its official name) is mildly abrasive; gently scrubbing away surface stains to return teeth to a whiter shade. It’s also very alkaline (the opposite of acidic) so I would think if you have a very acidic mouth or eat a lot of acidic food, it could help balance out the Ph, which would be useful as acid breaks down enamel-this is strictly speculation on my part. It will also reduce the acidity of the lemon juice, which acts as a natural bleach of sorts. I use a mixture of baking soda and water on some days, and use the lemon juice on others, as I don’t want to overdo it.

You will need…
-Several teaspoons of baking soda
-Enough lemon juice or water to form a paste
-A toothbrush

Directions
Mix several teaspoons of baking soda with enough fresh lemon juice (or water) to make a paste. Wipe your teeth and any extra saliva off of them with a paper towel. Put a good amount of paste onto your toothbrush and apply.

2. Strawberry, Salt and Baking Soda Scrub

Strawberries are high in Vitamin C, which can help break-down plaque that is causing your teeth to look yellow. It also has an enzyme called malic acid, which may help to remove surface stains. The salt acts as an abrasive portion of the paste, physically scrubbing away stain-causing gunk, and the baking soda is an extra touch that you can choose to leave out if you’d prefer (I just like to add it to anything involving my teeth.)

You will need…
-1-3 large strawberries
-A pinch of seat salt
-1/2 teaspoon of baking soda (optional)

Directions
Mash the berries into a pulp, and add a pinch of sea salt and ½ teaspoon of baking soda, if you’re using it. Wipe any extra saliva off your teeth with a paper towel, and then apply a generous portion of the mixture to a toothbrush and apply. Let the mixture sit for 5 minutes, then rinse. Do this nightly.



3. Coconut Oil Rinse

I know this sounds absolutely mad (I thought it was crazy too when I first read about it) but rinsing your mouth with coconut oil (called ‘oil pulling’) is a unique, old, remedy that people swear by to help whiten teeth. It doesn’t sound like the most pleasant thing in the world, but I actually don’t mind the taste, and I think it does make a difference in the color of your teeth. It won’t make a difference by “bleaching” per say, but lauric acid in coconut oil can rid your teeth of bacteria found in plaque that can make them yellow. It is also supposed to promote gum health, and help keep your breath fresh.

You will need…
-About a tablespoon of coconut oil

Directions
In the morning, before you brush your teeth, scoop out a tablespoon or a little less (depending on the size of your mouth) of coconut oil. You can either soften it, or just put it in your mouth (I usually do the latter, and just let it soften.) Push, swish, and “pull” the oil through and around your teeth for 10-15 minutes, then spit it out, rinse with water, and brush your teeth.

Source : http://everydayroots.com/teeth-whitening-at-home

705
A Good CV/Resume / How to Write a Perfect CV
« on: April 17, 2017, 09:58:04 AM »

How to Write a Perfect CV


Writing a CV takes care

Fashion a perfect CV by downloading our invaluable ebook.

It gives you the following valuable information on how to write a perfect CV:

    Identify the right personal details to include. Learn what to add and what to leave out, such as whether to include your marital status or nickname.
    Add a personal statement. Find out what one is and how it can be used to focus a potential employer's attention on your best attributes.
    Know what to include in the skill section. Discover how to bring your skills to the fore and make sure you understand the difference between transferable, job-related and adaptive skills.
    Mention former jobs. Brush up on the best ways to present former or current employment in a way that shows you in the best light.
    Don’t forget your qualifications. Learn what to include, how to select relevant qualifications for a particular CV and why not listing everything exhaustively is crucial.
    Tailor it to the application. Gain skills with writing a CV that is adapted to an individual employer or a particular sector of industry to get the best results.
    Keep it up to date. Find out the best ways of keeping your CV up to date so that it is ready to go at a moment's notice.

The ebook also gives plenty of help on how to avoid the common pitfalls found in many CVs such as poor layouts, inappropriate language or simply writing too much.

source : https://www.monster.co.uk/cv/post-resume?intcid=CA_TopNav_Post_CV

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