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Messages - Raisa

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Chess / History of chess
« on: October 06, 2017, 10:51:54 PM »
The history of chess goes back almost 1500 years. The game originated in northern India in the 6th century AD and spread to Persia. When the Arabs conquered Persia, chess was taken up by the Muslim world and subsequently, through the Moorish conquest of Spain, spread to Southern Europe.

In Europe, the moves of the pieces changed in the 15th century. The modern game starts with these changes. In the second half of the 19th century, modern tournament play began. Chess clocks were first used in 1883, and the first world chess championship was held in 1886. The 20th century saw advances in chess theory, and the establishment of the World Chess Federation (FIDE). Chess engines (programs that play chess), and chess data bases became important.
The exact origin of chess is a great mystery. There are few ancient texts referring to the very beginning of chess, and fewer chess pieces left as physical evidence of the game's early existence. But myths, theories and opinions abound! Most historians believe it started in India, Persia, or China.But there is much that we do know. The form of chess which finally arrived in Europe was already being played in Persia some 1,350 years ago, when that area of the world was conquered by Muslim armies in the mid 7th century. The game became very popular in the Muslim world, and it was carried back, throughout Islam, across North Africa and eventually into Europe.
hough different from the chess we play today, the ancient game has striking similarities to the modern game. It is easy to learn the ancient rules of play, and to get a feeling for chess as it was experienced by Persians and Arabs long ago.

Let's look at the old game, known throughout ancient Islam as shatranj, starting with features that are familiar to a modern chess player. The game was played on a board of 8 by 8 squares, just as our game is, but the board was not checkered. The pieces were arranged like ours are, but some of their identities were a little different.
A reproduction of the early Persian chess set, all set up and ready to play
reproduction of the early Persian chess set
the chess king and rook, from ancient shatranj and modern chess
ancient and modern kings, ancient and modern rooks

The king of the old game was a king, like our king, and had the same move. No change there in over 13 centuries. The rook was called "rukh" which meant "chariot." It's interesting that we maintain essentially the same word in English, although the meaning of "rook" or "rukh" has long been lost to us. The ancient rook also had exactly the same move as our modern rook.

The modern knight also retains its ancient move and is still depicted, as it has been for centuries, as a horse. And the ancient pawn, although it could move only one space forward (never two spaces like our modern pawn), was always considered to be a foot soldier. His forward move and forward-diagonal capture were the same then as they are today.

You must understand scope of an organization’s legal and ethical responsibilities
To minimize liabilities/reduce risks, the information security practitioner must:

Understand current legal environment
Stay current with laws and regulations
Watch for new issues that emerge

Laws: rules that mandate or prohibit certain societal behavior
Ethics: define socially acceptable behavior
Cultural mores: fixed moral attitudes or customs of a particular group; ethics based on these
Laws carry sanctions of a governing authority; ethics do not
   1. pertaining to or dealing with morals or the principles of morality; pertaining to right and wrong in conduct.
   2. in accordance with the rules or standards for right conduct or practice, esp., the standards of a profession.

Should companies collect and/or sell customer data?
Should IT specialists monitor and report employee computer use?
   1. pertaining to or dealing with morals or the principles of morality; pertaining to right and wrong in conduct.
   2. in accordance with the rules or standards for right conduct or practice, esp., the standards of a profession.

Should companies collect and/or sell customer data?
Should IT specialists monitor and report employee computer use?
   1. pertaining to or dealing with morals or the principles of morality; pertaining to right and wrong in conduct.
   2. in accordance with the rules or standards for right conduct or practice, esp., the standards of a profession.

Should companies collect and/or sell customer data?
Should IT specialists monitor and report employee computer use?
Civil law represents a wide variety of laws that are recorded in volumes of legal “code
Criminal law addresses violations harmful to society and is actively enforced through prosecution by the state.
Tort law allows individuals to seek recourse against others in the event of personal, physical, or financial injury.
Private law regulates the relationship between the individual and the organization, and encompasses family law, commercial law, and labor law.
Public law regulates the structure and administration of government agencies and their relationships with citizens, employees, and other governments, providing careful checks and balances.  Examples of public law include criminal, administrative, and constitutional law.
Types of law: civil, criminal, tort law, private, public
Relevant Nepalese Acts/Regulation/Policies:
Electronic Transaction Act 2063 B.S.
Telecommunication Act 2053 B.S.
National Broadcasting Act 2049 B.S.
Copyright Act 2059 B.S.
Patent Design and Trademark Act 2022 B.S.
IT Policy 2067
Date of Authentication and Publication: 22 Mansir 2063 ( December 8, 2006)
Consider as landmark law for the development of Nepalese IT sector.
Provision for any person to authenticate to any electronic record by his/her personal digital signature.
Provision of IT tribunal
consisting of one member each of law (Chairman), Information Technology and Commerce
To Pirate, Destroy or Alter computer source code
 Unauthorized Access in Computer Materials
Damage to any Computer and Information System
Publication of illegal materials in electronic form
Confidentiality to Divulge (disclose)
To commit computer fraud
Punishment in an offence committed outside Nepal
One of the hottest topics in information security
Is a “state of being free from unsanctioned intrusion”
Ability to aggregate data from multiple sources allows creation of information databases previously unheard of

Public Health / 10 simple weight loss tips 
« on: September 24, 2017, 02:10:47 PM »
Losing weight doesn’t have to feel like a chore. Simple changes to your lifestyle will produce results.  
Most of us know that eating a little less, and exercising a little more does the trick, but in an industry crowded with mixed messages on tips to lose weight, it can get confusing.
These simple weight loss tips have been tried and tested. They might not transform your body overnight, but they will help it attain a slightly better, healthier shape in the longer term.
Because water is involved in many metabolic processes in your body, being dehydrated has the potential to slow your metabolism down, which can hamper weight loss.
TBecause water is involved in many metabolic processes in your body, being dehydrated has the potential to slow your metabolism down, which can hamper weight loss.
There’s also a theory that having a glass of water before a meal can make you feel satisfied faster, meaning you eat less’s also a theory that having a glass of water before a meal can make you feel satisfied faster, meaning you eat less calories.
Because water is involved in many metabolic processes in your body, being dehydrated has the potential to slow your metabolism down, which can hamper weight loss.
There’s also a theory that having a glass of water before a meal can make you feel satisfied faster, meaning you eat less calories.5. Savour. Every. Mouthful.
Focus your mind on your food and enjoy every fork. This is the art of mindful eating. Not only are you likely to enjoy it more, you’re allowing yourself to listen to your stomach and when it is feeling full.

Many watch television or multitask while eating, which distracts the mind and can result in over eating. Eating on the go can also contribute to bloating.
6. Exercise more
Adding more activity to your daily routine – walking to work or using the stairs – is a sure fire way to aid weight loss. Weight lifting is also really important to stop your body losing muscle mass.
When you introduce a calorie deficit into your diet and your body notices low energy levels over a prolonged period, it may enter 'starvation mode' where it starts to break down muscle for energy and your metabolism slows down.
Lifting weights and other resistance exercises will prevent you losing muscle mass and speed up your metabolism fast.
7. Use smaller plates and bowls
Trading in your huge dinner plate for a slightly smaller one is a very simple but effective weight loss tip. You can ‘fill your plate’ without breaking the rules. This can help with portion control.
8. Keep a food diary
Weight loss is all about changing lifestyle habits. Record what you eat and when and it should be easy to spot bad habits. This will also allow you to block out meal times so you can practice mindful eating.

a new study shows that this spike in temperatures is unprecedented going back over one hundred centuries. They looked at global temperature anomalies—deviations from an average or standard temperature—for 73 sites distributed across the planet, using fossils in sediments as a proxy for temperature. The chemical and isotopic composition of the fossils yields a fairly accurate measure of the environment temperature at the time the animal or plant making up the fossil lived.
What they found is simply stunning: The rate at which the globe is warming right now is far, far faster than it ever has going back as far as they could measure, up to 11,300 years ago. In fact, over the past 5000 years, the Earth actually cooled by about 1.3°F…until the last 100 years, when our temperature spiked upwards by about the same amount.
Mind you, this is the rate of warming, how quickly the global temperature is increasing. But they also showed the actual temperature of the planet is warmer now than it has been for 70-80 percent of the past over that time period. There have been times when the Earth was warmer, but the important point isn’t the actual temperature, but what it’s doing.
And what it’s doing now is skyrocketing.

Have you ever read anything good about global warming? Why is all the news always bad?
Objectively speaking, any environmental change should have both positive benefits and negative effects. For example, theory predicts and observations confirm that human-induced warming takes place primarily in winter, lengthening the growing season. Satellite measurements now show that the planet is greener than it was before it warmed. There are literally thousands of experiments reported in the scientific literature demonstrating that higher atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations — cause by human activity — dramatically increase food production. So why do we only hear one side about global warming?
Perhaps because there’s little incentive for scientists to do anything but emphasize the negative and the destructive. Alarming news often leads to government funding, funding generates research, and research is the key to scientists’ professional advancement. Good news threatens that arrangement.
This is the reality that all scientists confront: every issue, be it global warming, cancer or AIDS, competes with other issues for a limited amount of government research funding. And, here in Washington, no one ever received a major research grant by stating that his or her particular issue might not be such a problem after all.
A recent story is typical. Two American scientists, Thomas Knutson and Robert Tuleya, published an academic paper forecasting an increase in the power of hurricanes (typhoons) because of global warming. Specifically, they used a computer model in which the sea surface temperature was warmed, and they found that nearly 60 percent of the changes in the computer’s hurricanes could be attributed to that effect.
The real world is not the world of the computer. In reality, only 10 percent of the behavior of hurricanes in the Atlantic Ocean (where there are the best long-term records) is related to sea surface temperatures. When that is factored in, any changes in hurricanes related to global-warming become undetectable over the next century.
How could there be such a disconnection between a computer simulation and reality? Why don’t scientists check for this before they publish their papers? And why don’t other scientists who peer-review the research papers point out inconsistencies before they are published?
Computers only do what they are told, and they don’t do what they are not told. One factor that was ignored in this study is global warming is likely to increase winds, several kilometers aloft, that actually destroy hurricanes. In fact, as the planet has warmed, maximum winds measured by hurricane-research aircraft in the Atlantic Basin have declined.
This tempering effect of upper-atmospheric winds on hurricanes is one reason that oceanic heating explains so much less of hurricane behavior in the real world than it does in the computer’s imagination.
There’s no need to single out the recent hurricane story. There are plenty of similar examples concerning global warming.
How many times have scientists stated publicly that human-induced global warming is destroying the glaciers of Africa’s Mt. Kilimanjaro? Again, a larger constellation of facts changes the story

DHAKA, Bangladesh – Bangladesh may be Mother Nature's punching bag, but in the battle for survival against climate change, this tiny, riverine nation isn't going down without a fight.

Already, Bangladesh has invested 10 million taka, the equivalent of about $150,000, to build cyclone shelters and create a storm early-warning system. Earlier this year, it allocated another $50 million to the country's agriculture and health budgets to help "climate-proof" certain development sectors. The nation's agricultural research centers are devising salinity-resistant strains of rice. And the South Asian nation was one of first to deliver to the United Nations a strategy outlining what it needs in order to cope with the worst effects of climate change.

"They're not waiting," said Saleem Huq, lead author of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change's most recent report on sustainability.

Leaders throughout Bangladesh say the nation desperately needs money from the West to adapt to problems that the world's leading climate scientists agree are caused by the emissions of industrialized nations. But they also point out that the country's history with catastrophe has in some ways given Bangladesh a head start in knowing how to cope with climate change.

Environmental Science and Disaster Management / Global warming
« on: September 18, 2017, 04:30:36 PM »
Recently, European Research Agency has revealed their research on ice melting in the Antarctica. In those revelations, they have found that the current rate of melting of the ice in the Western Antarctica is two times greater than what was 4 years before. The research finds that the Western Antarctica is loosing 159 billion tonnes of ice per year which may increase the sea-level by 0.5 mm per year . According to the IPCC Fifth Assessment Report published recently, the sea-level of the Bay of Bengal is rising at a rate of 1.5 mm per year. Bangladesh with the Bay of Bengal on the South will be directly affected by the sea-level rise because of its low elevation.  If the sea-level rises by 45 cm, a permanent loss of up to 15600 square kilometres of land is expected. If one meter rise happens, around 14000-30,000 sq. km land are expected to be flooded, which means more than 20% of Bangladesh will be under water . Scientists predict that rising sea-levels to submerge 17 percent of Bangladesh's land area will displace 18 million people in the next 40 years by 2050.

Jokes / Ranking the Jokers From Worst to Best
« on: August 05, 2017, 08:11:42 PM »
A hero is only as good as the villain he’s up against. Batman is famous for his gallery of rogues, but the Joker will always be at the top of the top. He’s been portrayed by a variety of actors over the years. Here’s how they line up, from worst to best:

5. Jared Leto, “Suicide Squad”
If you’re the bad guy in a movie full of bad guys, you’re going to need to bring your demonic “A game,” and that’s just what Leto does — at least, in the early scenes of “Suicide Squad.” He’s the first hip-hop Joker, with dead eyes and a mouth full of silver-capped teeth that turn his menacingly-switched-on-and-off smile into a gangsta grimace. He’s the most coldly homicidal of all Jokers, and also, ironically, the first one to have a girlfriend (Margot Robbie’s psychotic baby doll Harley Quinn). All in all, he’s got a lot on his villainous plate, but the joke is on him: Leto’s steely yet revved performance is just getting started when he’s relegated to the sidelines, where no good Joker should ever be left to laugh alone.

4. Mark Hamill, “Batman, The Animated Series”
In the far-off days of 1992, it seemed an utterly wack idea: Let’s cast the earnest and slightly mopey Luke Skywalker as … the most gleefully high-on-himself villain in the history of villainy. But Hamill, to a degree no one could have predicted, got in touch with his inner deranged demon-clown. Where a lot of famous actors recede in animated roles, he tapped deep into a hidden side of himself. He has said that his key influences in creating the character were Hannibal Lecter and Jerry Lewis, but at times he sounds like a demented aristocrat out of Noel Coward, and his laugh is like a mood ring — it’s got a hundred shades of crazy.

No wonder Hamill has been voicing the Joker ever since — on Batman and Justice League cartoon series, for videogames, and in the recently released version of “The Killing Joke.” Some say he’s the greatest Joker ever, though really, that’s an overreaction to the fanboy novelty of seeing the hero of “Star Wars” flip his lid. But an inspired flip of the lid it is.

3. Jack Nicholson, “Batman” (1989)
It’s not unusual to see a villain steal the show, but Nicholson didn’t just steal Tim Burton’s “Batman.” He stole it, danced on it, ate it for lunch, and came out the other side the way that only the Joker could: smiling! It’s the one “Batman” movie that could have been called, instead, “The Joker,” and Nicholson, pushing the sarcastic lunacy he first perfected in “The Shining” to the extreme breaking point, gave a performance that was pure, exuberant palm-buzzer vaudeville. In Burton’s vision, Batman and the Joker have more in common than they once did — they’re both creatures of the night, driven by the darkness of their obsessions. But it’s Nicholson’s Joker who’s got the bats in his belfry.

2. Cesar Romero, “Batman” (1966)
Outside of the original comic books, Romero really invented the template — the maniacal cackle, the blissed-out revenge — because, of course, he got there first. And when you consider that it was all part of a high-camp ABC TV series that debuted 50 years ago, it’s easy to feel a touch of awe for how radical and unhinged and gleefully out there Romero’s Joker really was. The actor was nearly 60 when he took on the role, but with eyes just about popping out of his head, he gave the Joker an operatic pizzazz, rolling his “R’s” like the Hollywood Latin lover he once was, speaking in a voice as high-pitched — or maybe just high — on hysteria as his deranged laughter. He set the standard for every Joker to come.

1. Heath Ledger, “The Dark Knight” (2008)
Maniac. Torture victim. Terrorist. Party host. “The Dark Knight” came out six months after Ledger’s death, but it left no doubt that he was the most audacious actor of his generation. His Joker starts from the place all other Jokers leave off: the sheer fun of sadism. What makes his performance hilarious, and scary, and visionary is the way it shows us the damage behind the fun, and the giggle behind the damage, and the insanity behind that. He’s the first Method supervillain, sucking on his mouth scars, and Ledger plays him like Brando as a psychotic pain freak. He made evil into something mesmerizingly derelict, and timeless.

Photo Gallery / Photography
« on: August 05, 2017, 08:05:31 PM »
Photography is the science, art, application and practice of creating durable images by recording light or other electromagnetic radiation, either electronically by means of an image sensor, or chemically by means of a light-sensitive material such as photographic film.

Typically, a lens is used to focus the light reflected or emitted from objects into a real image on the light-sensitive surface inside a camera during a timed exposure. With an electronic image sensor, this produces an electrical charge at each pixel, which is electronically processed and stored in a digital image file for subsequent display or processing. The result with photographic emulsion is an invisible latent image, which is later chemically "developed" into a visible image, either negative or positive depending on the purpose of the photographic material and the method of processing. A negative image on film is traditionally used to photographically create a positive image on a paper base, known as a print, either by using an enlarger or by contact printing.

Photography is employed in many fields of science, manufacturing (e.g., photolithography), and business, as well as its more direct uses for art, film and video production, recreational purposes, hobby, and mass communication.

Career Advice / 7 Ways to Create a Friendly Environment at Work
« on: August 05, 2017, 07:53:42 PM »
Let’s face it, whether we mainly hire freelance help or manage a large office staff, we all have to work with people. Your company will run like a well-oiled machine if you learn to create positive relationships with your colleagues and co-workers.
Here are seven tips that will help develop great relationships at work.

1. Develop a positive attitude.
When you own your own company, your co-workers and employees look to you to set the tone for the business and the office environment. A positive attitude is key to an enjoyable, more comfortable workplace. A positive or negative attitude also spills over into how your customers perceive your business, which translates into their willingness to do business with you. They can tell when everything is clicking, and they can also tell when things are amiss.

2. Treat everyone with respect.
Everyone you work with deserves respect in the workplace, even when you differ on opinions. Look at each and every person as a vital member of the team. Respect that they have different opinions and ways of looking at the world. This respect will go a long way in developing the trust and teamwork that will take your business to the top.

Related: To Boost Your Business Treat Employees as Well as Your Customers

3. Practice active listening.
Effective communication begins with active listening. Encourage your co-workers to share their thoughts and be open to hearing them all the way through without interrupting or interjecting your own opinions. To foster an environment where everyone feels they have a voice, make your approach “yes, that’s a possibility” rather than “no, that would never work.”.

4. Connect on a personal level.
Develop meaningful bonds with your fellow workers. Exchange ideas and personal opinions. Show your empathy and concern for their well being as people, as well as co-workers. Take time to learn about their families and their goals. When you show a genuine interest in others, you foster a happier workplace.

5. Develop relationships outside of work.
Go to lunch with your co-workers or plan an off-site event like a bowling night or a day at the ballpark. Get to know each other outside of the office. You’ll be pleasantly surprised to learn more about what makes them tick and you’ll develop even stronger bonds when you discover you have shared interests.

Related: The Hidden Benefits of Happy Co-Workers (Infographic)

6. Work together for a larger good.
Most people feel good when they’re helping others. Take on a charity campaign and encourage your co-workers to participate in fundraising events, a charity race or a Habitat for Humanity project. You will build trust and form a bond when you share common goals and activities for the good of others. Post regular reports around the office or in your newsletter. Recognize everyone for their hard work and dedication.

7. Say thank you.
There are all sorts of ways to provide rewards, including praise, recognition, money, prizes, gift cards, celebratory meals, trophies and certificates of achievement. Be liberal with positive feedback and show gratitude when employees go above and beyond their normal duties and responsibilities.

Everyone likes to feel valued and appreciated for what they do everyday. An attitude of gratitude goes a long way. Offer respect, kindness, openness, caring and trust and you will be sure to reap the returns many times over.

Photography / PHOTOGRAPHY Tips & Techniques for Better Pictures
« on: August 05, 2017, 08:37:21 AM »
Making beautiful photographs involves nothing more than a bit of thought. While it often helps to have decent equipment, all you really need is to take a moment before each shot to think clearly about what you are attempting to capture or create.

The following guidelines are intended to help novice, non-artistic, and/or non-technical picture-takers immediately improve their photography.
Tip #1: Move in Closer

Each time you spot a subject, snap a shot and then move in closer for a better shot. Having your subject almost fill the frame helps your viewer understand and appreciate your photo. Also, details are often more interesting than an overall view.
Keep moving in closer until you are sure the photo will successfully represent your subject.

Tip #2: Be Quick

If it is at all possible that your subject may move, bolt, fly away, stop smiling, or just get tired of waiting for you to take the picture, shoot once right away.

Practice getting quicker and quicker to the draw.

Do not worry about taking too many pictures and do not wait until you're absolutely certain all the knobs and buttons are in their correct position.

As the motto of one of BetterPhoto old t-shirts states, "Shoot First, Ask Questions Later."

Tip #3: Compose Your Picture with Care

Even if you don't plan on selling your photo to the Smithsonian, make every effort to keep it balanced and beautiful. On one level or another, everyone responds better to a picture that has all elements in balance.

Strive to lead the eye along an interesting path through the photo, with the use of strong lines or patterns.
•Keep the horizon level;
•Crop out extra elements that you are not interested in (more on this is the next tip);
•Consciously place your subject where you think it most belongs rather than just accepting it wherever it happens to land in the photo;
•Play with perspective so that all lines show a pattern or lead the eye to your main subject;

Tip #4: Be Selective

Discern what you are really interested in and center your efforts on getting the best photo of this subject, whether it a still life, your funny cat, your doggy, a friend, a family matter, a mood, a place or culture.

Then be sure to keep anything that would distract out of the picture. Go as far as Ansel Adams did to remove unwanted elements.

The easiest way to do this is to watch your borders - the edges of the view you see through the camera's viewfinder. Then recompose if anything - such as an unattractive telephone wire, an old soda can, a distracting sign, your finger, or your camera strap - hangs into your picture.

It can become more difficult if you want to, say, shoot a San Francisco cable car without a single distracting telephone line. But even in such a difficult case, you have many options.

You can:
•Focus in on a close-up that tells the whole story;
•Move around until you arrange the telephone lines into a neat pattern that leads to the subject; or
•Take a panning shot that makes the cable car remain in focus while the background goes blurry.

Tip #5: Focus on Your Subject

Practice shooting with different apertures and monitor the results afterwards to learn how depth-of-field affects your photo.

You will find that a smaller depth-of-field (and smaller f-stop #) focuses all the attention upon your subject. This is great for taking a picture of your child, your dog, or your husband - subjects stand out against a blurry background.

Likewise, you will find that a greater depth-of-field (bigger f-stop number) will make everything from here to eternity appear in focus. This will help make those landscapes fascinating and lovely.

You will also want to become familiar with the way your camera focuses. If it is a simple point and shoot camera, you will likely indicate which part of the picture to focus on by following these steps:
1.Aim so the object you want in sharp focus is in the center of the viewfinder.
2.Press the shutter button down half-way and hold it.
3.Move your camera until you have the composition you like best (see tip #3).
4.Press the button down the rest of the way to take the picture.

Tip #6: Experiment with Shutter Speed

One of the most basic, overlooked, and fun aspects of photography is that you have the power to slow time down or catch a split second.
One image happens so slowly that we could never see it and the other happens so quickly in real time that we would never notice it. Play with shutter speed!

Use a slow shutter speed and a tripod to make a pretty picture of any creek or stream. On the other hand, you can use a fast shutter speed (1/500 and up) to capture an object in motion.

Combining a fast shutter speed with a long lens, you sports buffs can get a trophy of your own when you are able to catch the expression on your favorite runningback's face as he slips past the final defense toward a winning touchdown. Remember, catching the moment in fast-paced action photography may take a little more practice so hang in there.

Tip #7: Look at the Light

By this, I don't mean look into the sun - no, that won't do at all. But it is good to see what kind of light you are working with. Which way are the shadows falling? Unless you want a silhouette effect, where your subject is black against an interesting background, it's generally best to shoot with the sun behind you.

How is the light affecting your subject? Is the subject squinting?

Is the light blazing directly and brightly upon your whole subject? This works well if you are in love with the bold colors of your subject.

Side lighting, on the other hand, can add drama but can also cause extreme, hard-to-print contrasts.

Lastly, indirect light can be used to make your subject glow soft and pretty.

Tip #8: Watch the Weather, Too

Look outside and decide whether or not you are going to want to have the sky in your picture.

If it's overcast, simply keep the sky out of your pictures as much as possible. This is usually the best way to avoid both muted tones in your subject and washed-out skies in your background. You might also find black and white pictures of an overcast day more pleasing than color.

When the day is beautiful, go ahead and make the most of it.

If your camera allows for the use of filters, purchase a polarizer. This will help you render deep blue skies against bright white clouds, richly contrasting colors, and other wonderful effects with a simple twist of the wrist.

Tip #9: Keep Your Camera Settings Simple

While you may wish to have "all the bells and whistles" available just in case, you will probably get the best results if you do not try to use them all the time and instead learn a simple set up that works best for you in most situations.
This doesn't necessarily mean keeping your camera set on "Program" - while this mode may be perfect in its simplicity, it may be frustrating in its tyrannical control.

Instead of relying on a fully automatic program, pick a simple, semi-automatic program such as aperture-priority and master shooting in that mode. Then, you'll be able to control certain basics without letting the other basics control you, and thus keep that 150 page manual where it belongs - in your camera bag.

Tip: if you want one accessory, bring a tripod. This one item can solve camera shake issues and help you get beautiful evening shots.

Tip #10: Be Bold

Don't allow yourself to be paralyzed by fears of using the wrong settings, or an non-politically-correct social policy.

If you are afraid of upsetting someone by taking their picture, just go up and ask if it's okay. Ask them to sign a release and offer a print in return.

With wildlife, adopt a low-impact method when you go places where few photographers have gone before. For the above photos, I put my camera and telephoto in a waterproof bag and kayaked out into Monterey Bay. (Lawyer-talk: This can be dangerous - so be careful.)

Be wise... but be bold.

There you have it - basic but helpful, I hope. Now go out there, make some great shots, learn from the failures, and have fun.


Internet Risk / Cyber threat and security
« on: August 05, 2017, 08:26:42 AM »
Cyber security is the ability to protect or defend the use of cyberspace from cyber-attacks, according to the National Institute of Standards and Technology, USA.

Of late, in Bangladesh, the financial services industry, which is a vital component of a nation’s critical infrastructure, is under persistent threat.

There has been burgeoning growth of internet users in the country. According to Bangladesh Telecommunication Regulatory Commission, the number of internet users almost doubled in the last two years. It shot up from 30.48 million in 2013 to 58.31 million in February 2016. With it, came an ardent need for in-built cyber security in IT and to make people more aware about the policies, standards and guidelines.

The emerging role of IT governance is to bridge the gap between control requirements, technical issues and business risks. The Governance Global Practice of the World Bank supports governments in improving access and quality of public services by developing integrated governance solutions to address service delivery problems in their local contexts.

Improving public services requires making policymakers, public servants, and service providers accountable to citizens, and promoting citizen engagement and trust in public institutions.

Recognising the interconnections between institutions, service delivery, and citizen trust and engagement is especially crucial in fragility, conflict and violence settings.

The organisations undergoing change management become the easy targets of cyber criminals. Since 2011, Bangladesh Bank was busy modernising its payment and settlement system. The overall banking functions of the central bank had been brought under automation by implementing the banking application package.
All the offices and departments of the BB had been brought under a computer network, connecting around 4,000 desktops/laptops by 2012. During the computerisation phase of the BB, it might be that the things were done out of hurry. The main thrust was on meeting the World Bank’s deadline. It was not possible to pay much attention to the security details.

Usually, this transformation phase of computerisation and change management remains risk-prone, as hackers take this chance of transition. They know that three important gears like security, monitoring and control might be lacking at that stage. The IT security of the banking sector in Bangladesh is in a very precarious stage and, hence, there are chances of further attacks.

In the last couple of years, CTO Forum Bangladesh has been addressing these critical issues. So far, it has organised as many as 15 seminars on cyber security. Its pursuits to make people aware are on. It is going to organise a conference on security jointly with Bangladesh Institute of Bank Management this month.

Out of my 35 years of experience in IT, I have developed an impression that the organisations are never willing to invest in IT security until and unless they are targeted and fallen as victims. What is more important is to make the system bulletproof and to defend further attacks by raising awareness.

Creation of platforms for future cyber-security awareness raising efforts is important. Every day, in one way or the other, businesses are facing the threat of hacking -- phishing, ransomware, data breach and malware attacks.

In the country, there has been a dire need of a core group of professionals consistently working on cyber threat intelligence, data protection and encryption.

In Bangladesh, the overall situation now calls for a cyber-security legal framework and that of an IT skill framework. It has to be a thorough assessment of the cyber security capacity, taking into account the existing capacity, availability of relevant skills training and education institutes, security companies, IT industry representatives, associations, professionals and multi-stakeholders.

It is usually said that as ICT investment continues to grow, the cyber-security profile must also be increased at par in order to enhance the effectiveness of technological capacity.

To be holistic in its approach to leverage ICT, at this juncture, Digital Bangladesh has been trying new approaches, new innovations and new methodologies. These include, among others, the establishment of the digital connectivity project.

It is the highest priority project of the government and expansion of the government-wide network to its lowest tier is also important.

A survey from Security Lab has found that almost 73 percent of companies are relying on standard endpoint security-class solutions to protect their virtual environments, potentially leading to reduced performance and creating an excessive load on their systems.

About 34 percent of businesses remain unaware that specialised security products even exist. According to the findings of a recent survey, only 27 percent of companies use security solutions that are specifically adapted for virtual environments.

Of these, nearly half use agent-based solutions. Specialised agent-less and light-agent solutions are still uncommon, and are used in just 35 percent and 15 percent of cases respectively.

Kaspersky Lab is a privately owned entity operating in 200 countries, including Bangladesh. According to them, Bangladesh is one of the countries on the top hit list of impending cyber attacks.

Wire-transfer processes and other operations need constant screening. Clearly, the time demands for creation of a position of a cyber security officer (CSO) in financial entities, corporations, businesses, organisations and institutions. More than 80 percent of Bangladesh is now covered by wireless networks.

Now, as we make steps ahead, we make digital footprints. Bangladesh ranks 107 out of 139 in the Global Competitiveness Index, 115 out of 138 in the Networked Readiness Index (2011) and 134 out of 183 in the United Nations e-Government Survey 2010.

Finally, mobile, cloud computing, IoT (internet of things) and cognitive computing are expected to be the technologies that will shape the near future the most.


Hockey / Bangladesh Hockey Federation
« on: August 04, 2017, 09:31:32 PM »
The Bangladesh Hockey Federation (BHF) was founded in 1972. The federation acquired full membership of the International Hockey Federation and of the Asian Hockey Federation in 1975. In 1987, a hockey stadium was built in Dhaka, which is now known as the Maulana Bhasani Hockey Stadium. Since then it has been the home of hockey and the office of BHF in Bangladesh where all levels of hockey are being played and controlled. The Federation regularly arranges hockey leagues, tournaments and the National Youth and Senior Championships. At the home level, hockey matches including Premier Division Hockey League, First Division Hockey League, Second Division Hockey League, National Hockey League, National Youth Hockey League, Independence Day Hockey Tournament, National Hockey Championship, National Youth Hockey Championship, Victory Day Hockey Tournament, School Tournaments and hosted various international tournaments with distinction.

Bangladesh started taking part in international hockey tournaments by participating in the 1st Junior World Cup for Asia/Oceania zone qualifying round in Kualalumpur in 1977. It took part in 1st Asia Cup in Karachi in 1982 and till date. The country also played in the Asian games held in Bangkok in 1978. Since then Bangladesh Hockey Team is participating in Asian games. In 1985, Dhaka hosted the Second Asia Hockey Cup,capt chaklader was the team captain. Bangladesh performed superbly .Hockey world observed the highest gatherings in any tournaments. India, Pakistan, Korea, Malaysia, China, Japan, Srilanka, Singapore, Iran and Bangladesh took part in this tournament. Bangladesh also hosted an international invitational hockey tournament in 1997. India, Pakistan and Srilanka were the participants.

Economics helps you to better understand what you are already doing. It’s not that economics will teach you what decisions to make in life. Economics only tells you how people generally behave. Do you believe that knowledge might be of use to you?

Well, think about this -

You go to a vegetable market and the other person charges a particular price. How do you decide whether this price is high or low? Suppose you know that he has no other option and it’s the evening time of the day and his vegetables are going to rot tomorrow, do you think you should pay more for it?
When you are negotiating for your salary, how much do you think the other person would be ready to pay you? Do you know what are the factors affecting the company’s decision? Can you influence that decision by offering them something unique or by being more affordable for them?
If a political party asks for your vote on the promise of minimum wages to all the people, do you support them? Do you know what are the implications of paying free money to people (such as MNREGA scheme)? What if they promise to pay free notes to all the people of the country, do you agree with them?
Do you travel by Ola/Uber? How do you decide whether you are okay with surge pricing or not? Do you have any other options (substitutes)? Can you consider walking that way if it is too expensive? When does it become “too” expensive for you, is there a formula?
Should you save your money in a bank account or should you invest it into the stock market? What are the factors affecting the returns on your money? Do you know what is the cost of borrowing a loan? Should you incur your expenses in cash or is credit card a good way to spend?
You know what’s funny: people may not have studied economics, but they all face the above situations in life. And yet, we all deal with it. We make economic decisions every single day. You may or may not study economics, but you cannot avoid economics. It is as much a part of human society as biology is.

There is nothing about economics that you don’t already do in life. Studying economics helps you only by trying to understand how you reach those conclusions. When you get to understand that, you will then be able to relate those concepts to a lot of situations in life. For example, for all the above situations, I have studied an economics concept which helps me to predict how people behave in various situations.

Most of what I am saying though, is more relevant for a newly developed branch of economics, called behavioural economics. This subject deals with human behaviour in a much more detailed and appropriate way than crude economics (which assumes that all human beings are rational).

Anyway, knowing economics is not an absolute necessity, it is just an added skill. There are other skills as well that you can master, instead of economics - such as sports, music, business, cooking, horse-riding, fighting, writing etc.

But you need to choose what you want in life, because you cannot have everything. There is a scarcity of resources at your disposal.

Art / Dhaka: Living Is Costly, Life Is Cheap
« on: July 16, 2017, 07:12:12 PM »
According to The Worldwide Cost of Living report, an Economist Intelligence Unit survey that compares more than 400 individual prices across 160 products and services to determine cost of living in a city, Dhaka is 71st costliest city in the world sharing the same position with cities like Montreal of Canada and just three steps behind Dubai.On the other hand, biggest cities of India likes of Bangalore and Mumbai are among the cheapest ten cities in the world holding the position 131 and 132 accordingly.

Singapore stands top in the list of ten most expensive cities followed by Zurich, Hong Kong, Geneva, Paris, London, and New York. On the other spectrum, Lusaka of Zambia is the least costly city in the world followed by Bangalore and Mumbai of India and Almaty of Kazakhstan.

The report, a bi-yearly survey [twice in a year] conducted by EIU, compare 400 individual prices that include prices of food, drink, clothing, household supplies and personal care items, home rents, transport, utility bills, private schools, domestic help and recreational costs. The more than 30 years old survey and bi-annual pricing index aimed at expats and business travelers, offers information and insight into living cost in more than 133 cities.

Early in January 2016, an annual report by the Consumers’ Association of Bangladesh (CAB) said, the cost of living rose by 6.38 percent in 2015 in the capital, though the prices of essential commodities remained relatively stable compared to the previous year. The same report observed a 6.83 percent rise in 2014.

A report by English daily the New Age published last year said, prices of different essential commodities, including rice, meat, electricity, house rent and transport fare, have increased over 60 per cent in last six years pushing the cost of living up in the country, particularly in Dhaka.On the other hand, standard of living has not improved as much as the cost of living. Dhaka continues to remain a city that is growing into less livable. Traffic and pollution continues to worsen, modern amenities are not evenly distributed and law and order situation is also falling apart.

Although, we have a growing per-capita income but that does not apply for every segment of the population. Consequently, while cost of living is increasing so does inequality. A World Bank report titled ‘Addressing Inequality in South Asia’ placed Bangladesh in third in the inequality index among the eight countries of the region. Among the key contributors to this flying living cost, increasing prices of essential commodities and house rent are two most important ones. And there is a lack of regulatory effort on the part of the government as well.

Growing cost of living has business implications. It makes it hard to start companies because few people could afford to spend as much money as it requires. Similarly, it discourages travelers, business and others, and expats coming to the city.

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