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Messages - Raisa

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706
Art / LOVE IS ART
« on: July 16, 2017, 07:04:52 PM »
LOVE IS ART was founded by South African-born artist, Jeremy Brown.  As an abstract artist, Brown has been making paintings during intimacy for over a decade, inspired by the 1960's French artist Yves Klein and various performance art pieces by Andy Warhol. One day, a close friend complimented him on a painting that was hung inside his house. After discovering how the painting was made, she asked him to provide her with everything she needed to make a painting with her husband on their anniversary. Brown put together a small package with all of the materials needed and wrote a little directional note for them to follow. They absolutely loved it, and the idea was born.
 
Brown then spent over 6 months researching & developing the appropriate materials to ensure a safe project for couples everywhere to experience making art while making love. The kit now includes a specially-treated cotton canvas and all natural, non-toxic paint. Covering all bases, it also includes a painters tarp to protect surfaces from paint splatters, disposable slippers to make a clean walk from the canvas to the shower and even a body scrubber.
 
He packaged the kit under the name LOVE IS ART.  According to Brown, "Art takes patience, dedication, practice, creativity, open mind, and an open heart...so does love. Love is art."

 
Simply put, the LOVE IS ART kit includes everything a couple needs to craft a one-of-a-kind abstract painting while being intimate with one another. What is left is a unique painting that represents that special moment. It can then be stretched, framed and hung on the wall - a lasting reminder of the love and passion that was shared. The kit also provides a unique bonding experience for the couples involved, as they work together as a team to craft their own unique masterpiece.
source https://us.loveisartkit.com/pages/about-us

707
Art / What is Art?
« on: July 16, 2017, 07:03:36 PM »
There is no universally accepted definition of art. Although commonly used to describe something of beauty, or a skill which produces an aesthetic result, there is no clear line in principle between (say) a unique piece of handmade sculpture, and a mass-produced but visually attractive item. We might say that art requires thought - some kind of creative impulse - but this raises more questions: for example, how much thought is required? If someone flings paint at a canvas, hoping by this action to create a work of art, does the result automatically constitute art?

Even the notion of 'beauty' raises obvious questions. If I think my kid sister's unmade bed constitutes something 'beautiful', or aesthetically pleasing, does that make it art? If not, does its status change if a million people happen to agree with me, but my kid sister thinks it is just a pile of clothes?
Art: Multiplicity of Forms, Types and Genres

Before trying to define art, the first thing to be aware of, is its huge scope.

Art is a global activity which encompasses a host of disciplines, as evidenced by the range of words and phrases which have been invented to describe its various forms. Examples of such phraseology include: "Fine Arts", "Liberal Arts", "Visual Arts", "Decorative Arts", "Applied Arts", "Design", "Crafts", "Performing Arts", and so on.

Drilling down, many specific categories are classified according to the materials used, such as: drawing, painting, sculpture (inc. ceramic sculpture), "glass art", "metal art", "illuminated gospel manuscripts", "aerosol art", "fine art photography", "animation", and so on. Sub-categories include: painting in oils, watercolours, acrylics; sculpture in bronze, stone, wood, porcelain; to name but a tiny few. Other sub-branches include different genre categories, like: narrative, portrait, genre-works, landscape, still life.

In addition, entirely new forms of art have emerged during the 20th century, such as: assemblage, conceptualism, collage, earthworks, installation, graffiti, and video, as well as the broad conceptualist movement which challenges the essential value of an objective "work of art".
source http://www.visual-arts-cork.com/art-definition.htm

708
Art / Art
« on: July 16, 2017, 07:01:17 PM »
Art, also called (to distinguish it from other art forms) visual art, a visual object or experience consciously created through an expression of skill or imagination. The term art encompasses diverse media such as painting, sculpture, printmaking, drawing, decorative arts, photography, and installation.The various visual arts exist within a continuum that ranges from purely aesthetic purposes at one end to purely utilitarian purposes at the other. Such a polarity of purpose is reflected in the commonly used terms artist and artisan, the latter understood as one who gives considerable attention to the utilitarian. This should by no means be taken as a rigid scheme, however. Even within one form of art, motives may vary widely; thus a potter or a weaver may create a highly functional work that is at the same time beautiful—a salad bowl, for example, or a blanket—or may create works that have no purpose beyond being admired. In cultures such as those of Africa and Oceania, a definition of art that encompasses this continuum has existed for centuries. In the West, however, by the mid-18th century the development of academies for painting and sculpture established a sense that these media were “art” and therefore separate from more utilitarian media. This separation of art forms continued among art institutions until the late 20th century, when such rigid distinctions began to be questioned.Particularly in the 20th century, a different sort of debate arose over the definition of art. A seminal moment in this discussion occurred in 1917, when Dada artist Marcel Duchamp submitted a porcelain urinal entitled Fountain to a public exhibition in New York City. Through this act, Duchamp put forth a new definition of what constitutes a work of art: he implied that it is enough for an artist to deem something “art” and put it in a publicly accepted venue. Implicit within this gesture was a challenge to the established art institutions—such as museums, exhibiting groups, and galleries—that have the power to determine what is and is not considered art. Such intellectual experimentation continued throughout the 20th century in movements such as conceptual art and minimalism. By the turn of the 21st century, a variety of new media (e.g., video art) further challenged traditional definitions of art.
source https://www.britannica.com/art/visual-arts

709
Present yourself / How to market yourself
« on: June 21, 2017, 11:01:38 PM »
source https://www.totaljobs.com/careers-advice/cvs-and-applications/how-to-market-yourself
What are you trying to achieve?
Consider what it is you’re actually trying to achieve. Obviously the final aim is to get a job, but how do you get there? Well, confidence is the key, but don’t overdo it. Of course your product may not be perfect, but no product is. You need to learn to look past any weaknesses for now. To develop the right job interview mindset, focus on your strengths. Think about what makes you unique, in terms of your qualities and accomplishments.
It may sound a little new-agey for some, but visualising yourself in a role – whether it’s a store manager or a chief financial officer – can really help you to focus on what you can bring to the position or contribute to the job. However small you start with this process, it’s an essential part of building your confidence so you can move forward in your job search.
Make sure you’re realistic with this one though. Imagining yourself in a position is not about taking flights of fantasy, it’s about helping you to focus on your personal merits and why you’re the ideal candidate. You need to be able to close the deal, but you’re never going to do that unless your objectives are built on solid foundations of realistic expectation.
 
What are you trying to sell?
This pretty much carries on from the above question, but takes things a bit further. Look at yourself honestly and ask why you want the job or the move that you’re focusing on. This is a very useful question to ask yourself, as there’s a very strong likelihood you’ll be asked the same thing if you get as far as the interview.
There are, of course, no right or wrong answers here, but you still need to be prepared. This will help focus your attention on projecting yourself in the right way, and when it comes down to it, being able to answer that question effectively.
 
Who’s your audience?
You now know who you are and what you’re trying to achieve, the next step is to understand the people you’re actually talking to. We all know about tailoring our CVs, covering letters and interview answers to the recruiter in question, but to do this we need to really understand what they are looking for.
This means doing your research. Obviously the job spec will hold a lot of these answers for you, but you can take this a step further by researching the company, putting yourself in their position and considering what they would want to hear.
You need to present your skills and experience (and search objectives if you’re applying to a recruiter) in the best possible light. These should be carefully thought out in advance and must be realistic. If you’re applying for a job in an industry you have no experience in, you’ll need to explain how your skills are transferable. If you’re working with a recruiter you might consider asking their opinion as to the feasibility of your goals.
 
How can you be more proactive?
The great thing about this process is it can also be effectively applied to making your job searching much more proactive. If you know the job you want, the strengths you can bring to that position, as well as understanding the people you are talking to, you’re perfectly placed to push yourself to companies before they even know they need you.
To do this, target a few companies you feel could benefit from your skills and send out applications to them. As with any sort of cold call like this you need to follow your application up with a phone call. But be prepared, this can be a tough process, but it’s incredibly rewarding if you’re successful.
To make the process as potentially rewarding as you can, keep an eye on the jobs market. Applying to a company that’s actively recruiting – even if it is in different areas – is reducing the chances of you being flatly turned down.
 

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Present yourself / How to present yourself on job market
« on: June 21, 2017, 10:54:26 PM »
sorce https://www.livecareer.com/quintessential/jobseeker-marketing-tools
Marketing is the lifeblood that runs through the veins of all successful organizations. Without marketing, no matter how good the product or service, the organization will fail. It’s marketing that defines the distinctive features and benefits of the product or service, it’s marketing that sets the price, it’s marketing that communicates those features and benefits to the appropriate audience, and it’s marketing that delivers the goods to the consumer.
Strategic Marketing Career Planning for Job-Seekers

As with any business, a job-seeker without a plan will simply not optimize his/her job search. Job-seekers should consider answering these questions in relation to their job history and career:

Where have I been, where am I now, and where will my career be if I do nothing?
Where do I want to go with my career?
How do I get to where I want to go?
How do I convert my plan into action steps?
How do I make changes to my plan if I am not getting success?
In some ways, the strength of your promotion tools may be the most vital piece of your career marketing mix. Promotion — as it relates to job-searching — includes cover letters, resumes, phone calling, and interviewing. Promotion tools include anything that you can use to get a job interview and ultimately get a job offer. How much time have you spent polishing these promotion tools? Do you have a solid resume? A dynamic cover letter? How are your interviewing skills? Do you have what it takes to sell yourself to the employer?

No matter how well you are positioned and how strong your USP, if you cannot properly communicate these benefits to employers, you will not get the job. We suggest you spend some time with these major sections of Quintessential Careers:

Cover Letter Resources
Resume Resources
Interviewing Resources

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source https://www.theguardian.com/lifeandstyle/2016/mar/08/online-harassment-of-women-at-risk-of-becoming-established-norm-study
Harassment of women online is at risk of becoming “an established norm in our digital society”, with women under 30 particularly vulnerable, according to the creators of a new Australian study.


Tell us about the first time you were targeted by online abuse
 Read more
Nearly half the 1,000 respondents in the research by the digital security firm Norton had experienced some form of abuse or harassment online. Among women under 30, the incidence was 76%.

Harassment ranged from unwanted contact, trolling, and cyberbullying to sexual harassment and threats of rape and death. Women under 30 were overrepresented in every category.

One in seven – and one in four women aged under 30 – had received general threats of physical violence. Almost one in ten women under 30 had experienced revenge porn and/or “sextortion”.

The online quantitative survey was carried out with 1,053 women in Australia aged 18 and over in February this year.

Similar research was done on men’s experience of harassment online, but those findings were held off in order to publicise International Women’s Day, as well as the fact that the issue is disproportionately experienced by women.

Researchers found that women received twice as many death threats and threats of sexual violence as men.

One in four lesbian, bisexual and transgender women who had suffered serious harassment online said their sexual orientation had been the target. One in five online harassment cases attacked a woman’s physical appearance.

The findings suggested that women believed that online abuse was a growing problem and felt powerless to act over it.

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Seventy per cent of women said online harassment was a serious problem in 2016 and 60% said that it was getting worse. More than half the women surveyed felt the police needed to start taking victims seriously.

But 38% of those who had experienced online harassment chose to ignore it, and only 10% reported it to police.

Melissa Dempsey, senior director for the Asia Pacific region of Norton by Symantec, said the findings showed a need for greater awareness and collaboration between the IT industry and law enforcement agencies – before online harassment became “an established norm in our digital society”.

Harassment is overwhelmingly taking place on social media, which facilitates 66% of cases – three times as many as by email (22%) or text (17%). Twenty-seven per cent of the women surveyed changed the privacy settings of their accounts after their experience.

The findings will likely fuel the argument that social networks such as Twitter and Facebook need to take greater responsibility for harassment on their platforms.


The gaming journalist who tells on her internet trolls – to their mothers
 Read more
Twitter announced in February a renewed push to tackle abuse and threats made on the network. Around the same time, Facebook launched a tool to offer support to users perceived to be at risk of suicide.

Tara Moss, a Canadian-Australian author and advocate who partnered with Norton to help design the survey, said online abuse was just one form of violence against women, all of which needed to be addressed.

With nearly 96,000 followers on Twitter, she said she had often been the target of abuse online, and received a spike in threats when she was made a patron of the Full Stop Foundation, tackling rape and sexual violence.

Georgie Harman, the chief execution of beyondblue, a long-time partner with Norton, said the mental health organisation’s work was increasingly being carried out digitally.

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She was especially concerned by figures that more than one in five (22%) of respondents who had experienced online harassment felt depressed and that 5% felt suicidal.

Harman said 65% of contact made to beyondblue was by women.

The Norton study coincides with a separate survey of about 1,000 women working in the Australian media, which found that more than 40% had been harassed on social media in the course of their work.

The survey by Women in Media, an advocacy group supported by the Media, Entertainment & Arts Alliance, found that 41% said they had been harassed, bullied or trolled on social media while engaging with audiences.

Several were silenced or changed career as a result of this harassment, which ranged included death threats and stalking. Sixty per cent of respondents agreed that it was more likely to be directed at women than men.

Only 16% of respondents were aware of their employer’s strategies to deal with threats on social media.

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USA / ADB-Japan Scholarship Program (JSP)
« on: June 17, 2017, 07:38:19 PM »
source https://www.youthop.com/scholarships/adb-japan-scholarship-program-jsp
The Asian Development Bank/Japan Scholarship Program (JSP) offers about 150 postgraduate scholarships a year for studies in economics, management, science and technology, and other development-related fields at participating academic institutions.

Location: Japan
 Benefits

The scholarship provides full tuition fees, a monthly allowance for expenses, housing, books and instructional materials, medical insurance and travel. For scholars engaged in research, a special grant may be available for thesis preparation. In special circumstances, computer literacy, preparatory language and other similar courses may be covered under the scholarship.

 Eligibilities

The program is open to those who have gained admission to an approved MA/PhD course at a participating academic institution. Candidates should be 35 years old or younger; in good health; with a bachelor’s degree or its equivalent; and have a superior academic record. Upon completion of their study programs, scholars are expected to return to their home country to contribute to its economic and social development.

Eligible Regions: Afghanistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Cambodia, Cook Islands, Georgia, India, Indonesia, Fiji, Kazakhstan, Kiribati, Kyrgyz Republic, Lao People’s Democratic Republic, Malaysia, Maldives, Marshall Islands, Federated States of Micronesia, Mongolia, Myanmar, Nauru, Nepal, Pakistan, Palau, Papua New Guinea, Philippines, Samoa, Solomon Islands, Sri Lanka, Tajikistan, Thailand, Timor-Leste, Tonga, Turkmenistan, Tuvalu, Uzbekistan, Vanuatu, Viet Nam.

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The game of volleyball, originally called “mintonette,” was invented in 1895 by William G. Morgan after the invention of basketball only four years before. Morgan, a graduate of the Springfield College of the YMCA, designed the game to be a combination of basketball, baseball, tennis, and handball.

The first volleyball net, borrowed from tennis, was only 6’6″ high (though you need to remember that the average American was shorter in the nineteenth century).

The offensive style of setting and spiking was first demonstrated in the Philippines in 1916. Over the years that followed, it became clear that standard rules were needed for tournament play, and thus the USVBA (United States Volleyball Association) was formed in 1928.

Latest Volleyball News from the NCAA and NAIA.

Two years later, the first two-man beach volleyball game was played, though the professional side of the sport did not emerge until much later. Not surprisingly, the first beach volleyball association appeared in California (1965), and the professional players united under the auspices of the AVP (American Volleyball Professionals) in 1983.

During the 1984 Los Angeles Olympics, American men and women took gold and silver medals in indoor volleyball competitions. Four years later at the Olympics in Korea, the men once again scored gold. Starting in 1996, two-man beach volleyball was officially introduced to the Olympics. Today, there are more than 800 million volleyball players worldwide, 46 million of them in the U.S.

Timeline of Significant Volleyball Events

In 1900, a special ball was designed for the sport.

In 1916, in the Philippines, an offensive style of passing the ball in a high trajectory to be struck by another player (the set and spike) were introduced.

In 1917, the game was changed from 21 to 15 points.

In 1920, three hits per side and back row attack rules were instituted.

In 1922, the first YMCA national championships were held in Brooklyn, NY. Twenty-seven teams from 11 states were represented.

In 1928, it became clear that tournaments and rules were needed, so the United States Volleyball Association (USVBA, now USA Volleyball) was formed. The first U.S. Open was staged, as the field was open to non-YMCA squads.

In 1930, the first two-man beach game was played.

In 1934, national volleyball referees were approved and recognized.

In 1937, at the AAU convention in Boston, action was taken to recognize the U.S. Volleyball Association as the official national governing body in the U.S.

In 1947, the Federation Internationale De Volley-Ball (FIVB) was founded.

In 1948, the first two-man beach tournament was held.

In 1949, the initial World Championships were held in Prague, Czechoslovakia.

In 1964, volleyball was introduced to the Olympic Games in Tokyo.

In 1965, the California Beach Volleyball Association (CBVA) was formed.

In 1974, the World Championships in Mexico were telecast in Japan.

In 1975, the U.S. National Women’s team began a year-round training regime in Pasadena, Texas (moved to Colorado Springs in 1979, Coto de Caza and Fountain Valley, CA, in 1980, and San Diego, CA, in 1985).

In 1977, the U.S. National Men’s Team began a year-round training regime in Dayton, Ohio (moved to San Diego, CA, in 1981).

In 1983, the Association of Volleyball Professionals (AVP) was formed.

In 1984, the U.S. won their first medals at the Olympics in Los Angeles. The men won the gold, and the women the silver.

In 1986, the Women’s Professional Volleyball Association (WPVA) was formed.

In 1988, the U.S. men repeated the gold in the Olympics in Korea.

In 1990, the World League was created.

In 1995, the sport of volleyball was 100 years old!

In 1996, two-person beach volleyball became an Olympic sport.

source http://www.athleticscholarships.net/history-of-volleyball.htm

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Travel / Visit / Tour / Best 10 Travelling Place of Bangladesh
« on: June 16, 2017, 10:25:49 PM »
Source http://bangladeshresult.com/best-10-travelling-place-bangladesh/
Best 10 Travelling Place of Bangladesh are listed in this article with their small description. There are a lot of traveling places in Bangladesh. Because the country is considered as the beauty queen of nature. Natural beauty is the main beauty of Bangladesh.

The beach in Cox’s Bazar is an unbroken sandy sea beach which is one of the world’s longest. Today, Cox’s Bazar sea beach is one of the most-visited and traveled places for tourist destinations in Bangladesh. This sea beach is 125 kilometers (78 mi) long. It is also a major international tourist destination.
Saint Martin :
It is a small island area only 8 kilometers. In this island, you will see incredible natural beauty. This island is popular for one species tree that is coconut. In this Narikel Jinjera, you will get another species of turtles that nest on the island. It is possible for you to walk around the island in one day because of its short only 8 km.
The Sundarbans is one of the largest single blocks of tidal mangrove forest in the world. It is a UNESCO World Heritage Site and situated in Bangladesh and India. Most of the part is in the Bangladesh. It is also popular for tiger and it is one of the largest reserves for the Bengal tiger.
Foy’s Lake is a human-made lake which is situated in Chittagong Bangladesh. Once the lake was just a lake and later it constructed by Assam-Bengal Railway engineer then it becomes well. This lake was first dug in 1924 and named as English engineer Mr. Foy. The lake is near the Batali Hill and this hill is the highest hill in the Chittagong. This lake is popular for an amusement park and this park is managed by the Concord Group.
Bandarban is a South-Eastern district of Bangladesh. It is a part of Chittagong Division. Bandarban is one of the most attractive, amazing travel destinations in Bangladesh. The English meaning of Bandarban is the dam of monkeys. The most attractive travel thing in Bandarban is hill tracts of Chittagong.

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Beauty Tips / Beauty tips for summer
« on: April 30, 2017, 12:59:10 PM »
Wash your face at least 4 times a day with a mild cleanser. Avoid cream based cleansers (unless you have very dry skin!) because they tend to leave your skin oily. Use a gel based scrub at least twice a week to get rid of the tan and dead skin cells. The exfoliation will help to keep your face look smooth and clear.
Oil you hair and let the oil soak in for just about an hour before you shampoo. After you shampoo, ensure that you deep condition your h.
Ensure that you carry some facial blotting paper to soak up the excess oil, a sunscreen lotion, wet wipes and a lip balm when you step out. Apply the lip balm frequently so that your lips are hydrated. Apply a sunscreen if you are outdoors and reapply at least once in four hours if your work demands you to be outdoors.air at least twice a week to keep your hair healthy and free from dirt

716
Animals and Pets / Cat Care
« on: April 23, 2017, 12:42:22 PM »

Decide if you want a kitten or a full-grown cat.[1] Kittens are adorably tempting, but be honest with yourself about whether you'll be able to match that energy level. Shelters are full of loving adult cats who have a much harder time getting adopted. An adult cat will be calmer and quieter than a kitten, but may also have behavioral issues from its previous life. Adult cats may also have medical conditions you'll have to address sooner than you would with a kitten. Also, kittens often scratch very painfully; Decide if you want that.
Consider medical concerns that may come with a specific cat. If you have your eye on one cat in particular, ask about its medical history to see if it requires any long-term care. Would you be able to afford this cat's medical needs?

    Even if the cat is healthy, consider its breed. Purebred cats from different breeds can have their own genetic problems to overcome. For example, flat-faced cats like Manx and Scottish folds often develop breathing problems.[2]
    Purebred cats are more likely to have genetic medical problems than non-pedigreed cats
Consider the amount of time you have for a cat. While a cat doesn't need daily walking like a dog, don't be fooled into thinking that cats aren't a time commitment. They're still active pets that need a lot of play, and affectionate companions who demand attention. You'll also spend time cleaning the litter box and giving the cat structured meals.

    The average lifespan of an indoor cat is 13-17 years, so be aware that you're making a long-term commitment to a new family member.
Consider adopting a cat from an animal shelter. The cost is minimal considering what you get: a fully vaccinated, health examined, and spayed or neutered cat.[6] Any “free” cat is ultimately going to cost you those things down the line, if you're a responsible cat owner.

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Animals and Pets / How to Take Care of Your Fish (Tanks)
« on: April 23, 2017, 12:37:22 PM »
Fish come in all different shapes and sizes. You name it: spikes, tails. Fish are cool. But how do you look after them? All those water chemicals, live food, and business about putting two fish in the same tank sounds scary. However, don't sweat it... just read this guide! It contains all the information you need on taking care of those first fins.Decide whether you want Tropical or Coldwater fish. Coldwater fish include goldfish and minnows. There are many types of tropical fish, from angelfish to corydoras catfish. Coldwater fish are usually a little more hardy, and will survive those first few mistakes, but they need more room.

    Start off with inexpensive fish, even if you can afford expensive ones. Inexpensive ones are inexpensive because they are very successful in their natural environments or so comfortable in captivity that they even breed regularly and, in either case, do not die easily on their way to and in pet stores.
    Do not start out with saltwater fish. They require techniques and understanding that are much more complex. Plus, the water you'll have to work with and that may leak is messy, slowly corrosive to metal, and conductive. If you believe you want a saltwater tank, get a medium sized tropical fish tank with some plants and see if you can keep that in perfect order first for a year or so.
 Decide what kind and how many fish you want.

    Research before putting species together. Some fish are compatible, others aren't. One might speculate that fish would enjoy some activity in their lives, so don't get just one. (The fish need not be the same species; for some territorial fish, it is best that it isn't. An armored catfish can be a good "companion" for such a beast.)
    Make sure you can provide any specialized care the fish need. For example, different fish need different foods, and some fish require more frequent maintenance than others. Owning fish is a big responsibility.
    Some fish are perfectly happy with flakes and can be fed with an automatic feeder, which makes it possible to leave the tank unattended for a week or two (assuming the fish are small so the water doesn't need very frequent changing).

3
Get an appropriately sized tank. Look up the minimum tank size for each fish.

    For goldfish, buy a tank with 20 gallons (75.7 L) for the first goldfish, and 10 gallons (37.9 L) for each additional goldfish.
    For freshwater fish, forget about one gallon per inch of adult fish. would you keep a 50 inch (127.0 cm) fish in a 50 gallon (189.3 L) tank?
    Bigger is better. Even if the fish looks small, it will thrive in a bigger tank.

Make sure you have all the proper equipment- filters, heaters (for tropical fish), water conditioner, test kit, etc.
Set up the tank and cycle it.
Put your fish in. Only add a few fish to start with, and slowly build up the population. Adding too many fish at once can overload your filtration system.
7
Perform partial water changes weekly. 20-30% is a good amount. To do a water change, get a gravel vacuum and siphon out any waste in the substrate. This will pull out water at the same time. Replace the water with water from your tap, but remember to treat it with a water conditioner.
8
Test the water regularly. Make sure you have 0 ammonia, 0 nitrite, and under 40 nitrate.

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Latest Technology / How does "deep learning" work?
« on: April 23, 2017, 10:51:34 AM »
Moosavi: Going back to the cat example, a human being – even a two-year-old – will have learned what a "cat" is after seeing five images, even if the images are combinations of pictures and drawings. As humans, we have an inherent ability to look at the big picture and ignore small perturbations since they don't change the underlying concept displayed in an image. But deep-learning systems are not capable of such abstraction. They don't identify a concept but rather sort through a logical series of clues. And that's what can lead to classification errors.
What problems would this cause in real-world applications?
Moosavi: Our goal is to better understand deep-learning systems so that we can improve their performance. Right now there is a lot of interest in deep-learning applications for medical imaging, such as to identify certain proteins or tumors. But when it comes to healthcare, having fool-proof technology is essential. So we must have a good understanding of the limitations of existing systems, so that we can make them more robust and capable of delivering guaranteed results.
Since it was fairly easy to find our perturbation, it isn't a stretch to imagine that people with bad intentions could also come up with ways to trick deep-learning systems. That could create potential security threats, for instance.
So what's the next step?
Moosavi: We think more theoretical research needs to be done on deep learning. We would like to see scientists look more closely at how artificial neural networks work, their properties, their considerable potential – and the associated risks. The code we used in our research is available to the public, so anyone can test the perturbation and study the problem further. In terms of our next steps, we plan to learn more about how complicated architectures of artificial neural networks work, so that we can make them more robust. We are already in contact with some potential partners that seem interested in our approach.
Moosavi: Deep-learning algorithms are learning algorithms designed to identify the important information in data sets. They consist of virtual "machines" built from artificial neural networks that are essentially neurons stacked in layers, with each layer performing a simple calculation.
We can show a machine a thousand images of cats, for example, and tell the machine that these are "cats." Roughly speaking, the first layer of neurons will analyze the low level features, such as the edges and corners, the second the basic shapes, and so on, until the machine pieces together the entire shape of a cat. The machine thus learns on its own from many images; each layer builds on the results of the previous one to perform its own calculations. The name "deep learning" comes from this progressive, layer-by-layer approach.
Fawzi: Once the machine has learned to recognize a cat, it can identify cats in images it has never seen. It is "smart" enough to recognize objects in new contexts – it doesn't just work by memorization.
How did you carry out your study?
Fawzi: We calculated the smallest possible perturbation that could throw off the image-recognition algorithms of the best learning systems. This perturbation prevented the systems from correctly recognizing most natural images. The perturbation was basically just a slight change in the value of an image's pixels. To the human eye, there was only a very minor difference between the original and modified images. But for the deep-learning systems, the difference was huge. A sock was identified as an elephant; a green plant as a macaw. What was really astonishing was that the same perturbation could fool many different types of systems.


Read more at: https://phys.org/news/2017-03-deep-coffee-maker-cobra.html#jCp


Read more at: https://phys.org/news/2017-03-deep-coffee-maker-cobra.html#jCp

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Researchers from the University of Granada (UGR) have designed an algorithm, inspired by the intelligent and social behavior of bee colonies, which allows law enforcement to attack and dismantle any type of social network that poses a threat, whether physical or virtual, such as social networks linked to organized crime and jihadist terrorism.
The possible applications of this new bio-inspired algorithm, which helps to make optimal decisions in order to dismantle any type of social network, are many and varied: from dismantling a criminal network to facilitating the design of vaccination strategies capable of containing the spread of a pandemic.
The tool designed by the UGR researchers automatically detects and identifies the most dangerous actors or nodes within a given social network and the density of the interconnected relationships between them, which may help law enforcement authorities make their decisions and act in the most efficient way possible.
As explained by one of the authors of this paper, Manuel Lozano Márquez, from the Department of Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence at the UGR, "Bees form fairly well organized societies, in which each member has a specific role. There are three main types: scout bees, which are looking for food sources; worker bees, who collect food; and supervisor bees, who wait in the colony."
Data exchange and communication processes are established between those three roles, which makes the overall performance of the colony very profitable. The UGR scientists have simulated this behavior using in silico bees in order to find effective and efficient strategies to dismantle networks. The results of the experiments indicate that the proposed technique significantly improves, from a statistical point of view, the classic strategy used for attacking and dismantling social networks.
Social networks
Many complex interaction systems linked to nature and related to mankind are structured in a complex network—that is, they are made up of a series of interrelated actors. Social networks are a very recent example of this. Some networks are pernicious because of their potential to cause harm to people, critical infrastructures and economic interests.
The classic (and also the most natural and intuitive) method for dismantling a network is to identify its main actors and take action on them. However, this strategy does not ensure that the resulting network is totally devoid of organizational and reconstructive power, and it may continue to cause harm.
"In order to find the most effective way of dismantling a network, it is necessary to develop and put into action an optimization process that analyzes a multitude of situations and selects the best option in the shortest time possible. It's similar to what a chess program does when identifying, predicting and checking the possible steps or paths that may occur in a game of chess from a given moment and movement," says Humberto Trujillo Mendoza from the Department of Methodology of Behavioral Sciences at the UGR and one of the authors of the paper.
As the authors explain, "The subtlety with which groups or colonies of relatively simple living beings (ants, termites, bees, etc.) are able to solve vital problems to survive is a proof of the effectiveness of evolution." By means of certain interrelationships among the members of a colony, a collective behavior emerges from that colony, and it allows them to efficiently react to problematic environmental situations. That task, applied by the UGR to the field of artificial intelligence, would be impossible to carry out by individual members of the colony.
At present, this research group is working on the development of other algorithms similar to the one described. This time, they are doing so to determine the nodes of the social network which certain "infiltrators" must connect to in order to increase the quantity and quality of the information gathered to improve the knowledge of the relations between the other actors, thus optimizing the dismantling of the network.


source  https://phys.org/news/2017-04-scientists-algorithm-bee-colonies-dismantling.html#jCp

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Tennis / Famous female tennis player
« on: April 23, 2017, 10:24:43 AM »
Source http://www.newsday.com/sports/tennis/10-best-women-s-tennis-players-of-all-time-1.10632315
EVONNE GOOLAGONG
Evonne Goolagong of Australia may have been the most graceful of all women's players. She seemed to float across the court and get surprising power into her shots. She played during the Martina Navratilova-Chris Evert era, and held her own with seven Grand Slam titles. She won Wimbledon in 1980 after giving birth to her daughter in 1977. She never won the U.S. Open but she reached the final from 1973 through 1976.
JUSTINE HENIN
t's unlikely that any women's tennis player ever got more out of a small body than the Belgian Justine Henin. She was only 5-6, but she played a commanding game that included a powerful one-handed backhand. She won seven Grand Slams titles, but never could quite grasp the Wimbledon trophy. There was never a doubt that Henin would give anyone a tough time.
VENUS WILLIAMS
Serena Williams' older sister, Venus, certainly set a championship example and remarkably made the Australian Open final this year where she lost to sister Serena. She won seven Grand Slam titles with a big serve and swooping groundstrokes, and if not for the success of her younger sister, she doubtless would have won more. Venus, at 36, has battled through injuries and has to deal with an energy-sapping condition known as Sjogren's syndrome. She won five Wimbledon titles and when healthy might have been the best grass court player of all time. She also won two U.S. Opens.
BILLIE JEAN KING
There is no question that Billie Jean King was a great player, with 12 Grand Slam titles to her credit, including six at Wimbledon from 1966 to 1975. She was a charging player who wasn't afraid to serve and volley. Just as important, she wasn't afraid to stand up for women's rights in the sports world, where she became highly influential in the fight to get women paid as well as men and to have their game respected.
SERENA WILLIAMS
and unrelenting determination, and you have the most dominant women's player ever. With her victory over sister Venus in the Australian Open final early Saturday, she now has 23 Grand Slam titles in the Open era, breaking a tie with Steffi Graf for the most of all time. She also accomplished the Serena Slam of 2002-2003 when she won, in order, the French Open, Wimbledon, U.S. Open and Australian Open. Williams also has battled through illness and injuries that looked to derail her career. But at age 35 she's still going strong.

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