"HISTORY OF MUGHALS"
The mughal empire was the dominant power in the subcontinent between the mid 16th century and the early 18th century.Founded in 1526, it officially survived until1858 when it was supplanted by British Raj.The dynasty is sometime reffered to as the "TimuridDynasty" as babur was the descendent of TimuirBabur, ruled for just four years,but the dynasty was to last for then three centuries.Although the mughals were powerfuls leaders ,they faced challenges to their authority .The Mughal Dynasty is the line of muslim emperor who reigned in India and became the responsible for all the wealth and talent of thee most extensive empire in the midevel world.These challenges came from religious groups ,such as Sikhs and Hindus and opponents on the border of the empire , such as the Marathas in the Deccan or the persian. Perhaps the most serious challenge came from the british .In the early seventeenth century the british East India Company establish trading post in India. By the middle of the nineteenth century, much of the subcontinent had fallen under british control. Poor administration,disputes about succesion and a bretrayl of the principle of the Islamic religion led to the the decline of the power of the Mughal Empire .As a result the rulers were too weak to resist the growing influence and the power of the British advances .In 1862 the last Mughal Emperor,Bahadur Shah 2 died in exile. The decline of the Mughals Empire reflected a decline in the fortunes of the muslimin general in the subcontinent ,as the british tended to favour the hindu comunity. Fortunatly a number of great muslim reformers emerged who helped bring about a rerival of muslim fortunes and places muslim on the road to an independent Pakistan. Shah walliullah made the Quran accesible to large numbers of muslims by translating it into persian ,Syad ahmed Shaheed barelvi launched a movement to restore Islam to its original purity and his work was continued by Haji shariat Ullah's Faraizi Movement. Perhaps the most important muslim leader , however , was SirSyedAhmed Khan.He played a vital role in restoring relations between the british and the muslims after the war of Independence and in helping Muslims to appreciate the value of education .the work was of these four great reformers played a vital role in raising the ambition and the status of the muslim community in the subcontinent
ZAHIRUDDIN MUHAMMAD BABUR (1483-1530)
Babur the first mughal emperor,founded the Mughal Dynasty.He was born on 14th feburary 1483 at farghana in Uzbekistan.He belong to a Mongol family, but he himself was not fully a mongol.His father was the descendent of "Timur" while his mother was the descendent of "Genghis Khan".He suceeded his father (Umar Shaik) when he died, at the age of twelve.Babur was a soldier, brave warrior who also loved nature and poetry.He dreamt of ruling an empire as great as his ancestors.Babur felt that because the punjab and the Delhi sultanate had been conqured ,He attacked afghanistan and captured Kabul in 1504 and made the area base there.When he heard about the treasures of India ,he quickly marched in India and defeted the king (Ibrahim Lodi) of delhi, with an army of twelve hundred soldiers, he then defeted the sultan of Panipat and captured Agra and then he established himself as the "Sultan".His army was a mixture of persian,mongoland indian culture.His army wanted to go back to their homeland in cool atmosphere becoz it was hot in afghanistan but Babur refused to give up for what he has fought for.Then he made a speech to his soldiers in an assembly , then his army realized to stay back.Babur died on 26th december 1530 at agra. several years later his body was moved from agra to one of the garden of kabul=>
Babur was very upset when he heard that his favourite son Humayun was ill and he prayed that take his life instead of his son and his wish came true.
Babur was succeede by his son Humayun whos history walks the fine line between tragedy and frace.He inherited one of the largest empire in the world and between 1530 and 1540, he manage to lose all of it to rebellians,from Afghanistan to India.He went into exilein persia, and slowly put together an army to recounqur his lost territory.By 1555,he managed to do this ,dispite his inauspecious first decate in charge.Just as he was on the verge of complete reconquest, he felt down aflight of stairs and broke his neck.Dispite his tremendrous succes in reconquest , both islamic and western history has markrd him down as one of the major loser of the history