Discrimination is a sociological term referring to the treatment taken toward or against a person of a certain group in consideration based solely on class or category. Discrimination is the actual behavior towards another group. It involves excluding or restricting members of one group from opportunities that are available to other groups. The United Nations explains: "Discriminatory behaviors take many forms, but they all involve some form of exclusion or rejection." In some countries, controversial attempts such as racial quotas have been used to redress negative effects of discrimination.
The following are the major types of discriminations:Race and Ethnicity discrimination
To treat differently a person or group of people based on their racial origins. Power is a necessary precondition, for it depends on the ability to give or withhold social benefits, facilities, services, opportunities etc., from someone who should be entitled to them, and are denied on the basis of race, colour or national origin.
Age discrimination is discrimination on the grounds of age. Although theoretically the word can refer to the discrimination against any age group, age discrimination usually comes in one of three forms: discrimination against youth (also called adultism), discrimination against those 40 years old or older, and discrimination against elderly people.
Ageism is the causal effect of a continuum of fears related to age. This continuum includes:
â€¢ Ephebiphobia: the fear of youth.
â€¢ Gerontophobia: the fear of elderly people.
â€¢ Pediaphobia: the fear of infants or small children.
Sex and Gender discrimination
Though gender discrimination and sexism refers to beliefs and attitudes in relation to the gender of a person, such beliefs and attitudes are of a social nature and do not, normally, carry any legal consequences. Sex discrimination, on the other hand, may have legal consequences.
The United Nations had stated that women often experience a "glass ceiling" and that there are no societies in which women enjoy the same opportunities as men. The term "glass ceiling" is used to describe a perceived barrier to advancement in employment based on discrimination, especially sex discrimination.
Employment discrimination refers to disabling certain people to apply and receive jobs based on their race, age, gender, religion, sexual orientation and disability. In relationship to Sociology, employment discrimination usually relates to what events are happening in society at the time. Sexual Orientation Discrimination
In 2009, ILGA published a report based on research carried out by Daniel Ottosson at SÃ¶dertÃ¶rn University College, Stockholm, Sweden. This research found that of the 80 countries around the world that continue to consider homosexuality illegal, five carry the death penalty for homosexual activity, and two do in some regions of the country. Language discrimination
Diversity of language is protected and respected by most nations who value cultural diversity. However, people are sometimes subjected to different treatment because their preferred language is associated with a particular group, class or category. Commonly, the preferred language is just another attribute of separate ethnic groups.
More information can be found in:- http://en.wikipedia.org