Is there any Need of EDP (Entrepreneurship Development Programs) for the development of entrepreneurship in any country?
Are entrepreneurs are born or made? It’s an age-old question: Are entrepreneurs a special breed, born into this world with a drive and need to succeed that most of humanity lacks, or can they can be created through education, experience and mentorship? Experts have different opinions regarding this issue.
Entrepreneurs are born:
Entrepreneurs possess certain competencies or traits. These competencies or traits are the underlying characteristics of the entrepreneurs which result in superior performance and which distinguish successful entrepreneurs from the unsuccessful ones. The idea that certain entrepreneurial traits – such as being able to spot opportunities, physical appearance, and tendency to hard work, think differently and take risks – may be inherent has even led to a whole new area of genetic research. The above mentioned traits are inherent.
In the past five years, multiple studies have indicated that there may be an "entrepreneur gene"--or at least that people with certain genetic characteristics and personality traits are more likely to be successful entrepreneurs than others. In his 2010 book Born Entrepreneurs, Born Leaders, Scott Shane, professor of entrepreneurial studies at Cleveland's Case Western Reserve University, suggests that genes don't just influence whether a person will start a business; they may even determine how much money a person will earn.
James V. Koch is a board of visitors professor of economics and president emeritus at Old Dominion University in Norfolk, Va. He's also co-author with James L. Fisher of the 2008 book Born, Not Made: The Entrepreneurial Personality, which argues that many entrepreneurs are simply wired that way, giving them a natural advantage in the business world. Julian Lange is a senior professor of entrepreneurship at Babson College in Wellesley, Mass. His research in the past five years indicates that exposure to the ideas and lessons of entrepreneurship can have lasting effects on students, even if they are not "natural" entrepreneurs.
Entrepreneurs are made:
Whether these traits are in born in the entrepreneurs or can be induced and developed? Behavioral scientists have tried to seek answers to these questions.
A well-known behavioral scientist David C. McClelland (1961) at Harvard University made an interesting investigation-cum-experiment into why certain societies displayed great creative powers at particular periods of their history? What was the cause of these creative bursts of energy? He found that ‘the need for achievement (n’ ach factor)’ was the answer to this question. It was the need for achievement that motivates people to work hard. According to him, money- making was incidental. It was only a measure of achievement, not its motivation.
In order to answer the next question whether this need for achievement could be induced, he conducted a five-year experimental study in Kakinada, i.e. one of the prosperous districts of Andhra Pradesh in India in collaboration with Small Industries Extension and Training Institute (SIET), Hyderabad.
This experiment is popularly known as ‘Kakinada Experiment’. Under this experiment, young persons were selected and put through a three-month training program and motivated to see fresh goals.
One of the significant conclusions of the experiment was that the traditional beliefs did not seem to inhibit an entrepreneur and that the suitable training can provide the necessary motivation to the entrepreneurs (McClelland & Winter 1969). The achievement motivation had a positive impact on the performance of entrepreneurs.
In fact, the ‘Kakinada Experiment’ could be treated as a precursor to the present day EDP inputs on behavioral aspects. In a sense, ‘Kakinada Experiment’ is considered as the seed for the Entrepreneurship Development Programs (EDPs) in India.
The fact remains that it was the ‘Kakinada Experiment’ that made people appreciate the need for and importance of the entrepreneurial training, now popularly known as ‘EDPs’, to induce motivation and competence among the young prospective entrepreneurs.
Based on this, it was the Gujarat Industrial Investment Corporation (GIIC) which, for the first time, started a three-month training programs on entrepreneurship development. Impressed by the results of GIIC’s this training program, the Government of India embarked, in 1971, on a massive programs on entrepreneurship development. Since then, there is no looking back in this front. By now, there are some 686 all-India and State level institutions engaged in conducting EDPs in hundreds imparting training to the candidates in thousands.
Till now, 12 State Governments have established state-level Centre for Entrepreneurship Development (CED) or Institute of Entrepreneurship Development (lED) to develop entrepreneurship by conducting EDPs. Today, the EDP in India has proliferated to such a magnitude that it has emerged as a national movement. It is worth mentioning that India operates the oldest and largest programs for entrepreneurship development in any developing country.
The impact of India’s EDP movement is borne by the fact that the Indian model of entrepreneurship development is being adopted by some of the developing countries of Asia and Africa. Programs similar to India’s EDPs are conducted in other countries also, for example, ‘Junior Achievement Program’ based on the principle of ‘catch them young’ in USA and ‘Young Enterprises’ in the U. K.
The entrepreneurial traits like need for achievements, motivation, creativity, to competence etc. can be induced among the young prospective entrepreneurs through education, experience, training, intensive care and mentorship.
So EDPs (Entrepreneurship Development Programs) for the development of entrepreneurship in any country are inevitable. Through the entrepreneurship development program it is possible to develop entrepreneurship in any country.
Finally we can conclude that “Entrepreneurs are born as well as made”