In this method, certain categories of worth are established in advance and carefully defined. There can be three categories established for employees: outstanding, satisfactory and unsatisfactory. There can be more than three grades. Employee performance is compared with grade definitions. The employee is, then, allocated to the grade that best describes his or her perfor¬mance.
Such type of grading is done is Semester pattern of examinations and in the selection of a candidate in the public service sector. One of the major drawbacks of this method is that the rater may rate most of the employees on the higher side of their performance.
Forced Distribution Method:
This method was evolved by Tiffen to eliminate the central tendency of rating most of the employees at a higher end of the scale. The method assumes that employees’ performance level confirms to a normal statistical distribution i.e., 10,20,40,20 and 10 per cent. This is useful for rating a large number of employees’ job performance and promo ability. It tends to eliminate or reduce bias.
It is also highly simple to understand and easy to apply in appraising the performance of employees in organisations. It suffer from the drawback that improve similarly, no single grade would rise in a ratings.
The forced-choice method is developed by J. P. Guilford. It contains a series of groups of statements, and rater rates how effectively a statement describes each individual being evaluated. Common method of forced-choice method contains two statements, both positive and negative.
Examples of positive statements are:
1. Gives good and clear instructions to the subordinates.
2. Can be depended upon to complete any job assigned.
A pair of negative statements may be as follows:
1. Makes promises beyond his limit to keep these.
2. Inclines to favour some employees.
Each statement carries a score or weight, which is not made known to the rater. The human resource section does rating for all sets of statements— both positive and negative. The final rating is done on the basis of all sets of statements. Thus, employee rating in this manner makes the method more objective. The only problem associated with this method is that the actual constructing of several evaluative statements also called ‘forced-choice scales’, takes a lot of time and effort.
The basic purpose of utilizing check-list method is to ease the evaluation burden upon the rater. In this method, a series of statements, i.e., questions with their answers in ‘yes’ or ‘no’ are prepared by the HR department. The check-list is, then, presented to the rater to tick appropriate answers relevant to the appraisee. Each question carries a weight-age in relationship to their importance.