Depression

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Offline Nazneen

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Depression
« on: February 16, 2020, 03:31:53 PM »
Depression is a mood disorder that involves a persistent feeling of sadness and loss of interest. It is different from the mood fluctuations that people regularly experience as a part of life.

Depression is an ongoing problem, not a passing one. It consists of episodes during which the symptoms last for at least 2 weeks. Depression can last for several weeks, months, or years.

In females

Below are some symptoms of depression that tend to appear more often in females:

    irritability
    anxiety
    mood swings
    fatigue
    ruminating (dwelling on negative thoughts)

In males

Males with depression are more likely than females to drink alcohol in excess, display anger, and engage in risk-taking as a result of the disorder.

Other symptoms of depression in males may include:

    avoiding families and social situations
    working without a break
    having difficulty keeping up with work and family responsibilities
    displaying abusive or controlling behavior in relationships

Causes

The medical community does not fully understand the causes of depression. There are many possible causes, and sometimes, various factors combine to trigger symptoms.

Factors that are likely to play a role include:

   1. genetic features
   2. changes in the brain’s neurotransmitter levels
   3. environmental factors
   4.psychological and social factors
   5.additional conditions, such as bipolar disorder

Treatment

Psychotherapy: Also known as talking therapy, some options include one-to-one counseling and cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT).

Drug treatment: A doctor may prescribe antidepressants. Antidepressants can help treat moderate-to-severe depression.

    Several classes of antidepressants are available:

    1.selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs)
    2.monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs)
    3. tricyclic antidepressants
    4.atypical antidepressants
    5. selective serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs)

A person should only take these medications as their doctor prescribes.

Natural remedies

Some people use natural remedies, such as herbal medicines, to treat mild-to-moderate depression.

Nazneen Ahmeda Sultana
Lecturer, Department of Pharmacy
Faculty of Allied Health Science
Daffodil International University
E-mail:nazneen.ph@diu.edu.bd