The history of denim
A popular conception of the entomology of the denim is that it is a contraction or derivative of the french term SERGE DE NIMES. Denim was traditionally colored blue with indigo dye to make blue â€œJeansâ€œ
Though â€œJeanâ€œ then denoted a different , lighter cotton textile ; the contemporary use of jean comes from the French word for Genoa ,Italy,(Genes ) , from which the first denim trousers were made .
Similarly woven traditional American cotton textile is the diagonal warp-striped hickory cloth that was once associated with railroad menâ€™s overalls, in which blue or black contrasting with undyed white threads from the woven pattern. Records of a group of New Yorkers headed for the California gold fields in 1849 show that they took along four â€œhickory shirts â€œ apiece. Hickory cloth would later furnish the material for some â€œfatigueâ€ pantaloons and shirts in the American civil war.
Denim is a rugged twill textile, in which the weft passes under the two or more warp yarns, producing the familiar diagonal ribbing identifiable on the revere of the fabric.
Characteristics of denim fabric:
1. Warp yarns are colored (usually with indigo, vat, blue or sulphur black );
2. Structure : right hand or left hand twill, i.e. z/s-twill of 2/1 or 3/1construction;
3. Usually made of cotton yarns of coarser count (7s, 10s, 14s, 16s, etc )
4. Coarser cloth ( weight lies between 6-14 oz/sq.yds ) and used for pant and warm jackets;
5. Rotor yarn are usually used.
Specification of typical denim fabric =7Ã—1072Ã—56 Ã— 58â€
Classification of denim fabric :
1.As per weight /unit area.
a. Light weight : 4.5 to 7 oz/sq.yd
b. Medium weight : 7 to 10 oz/sq.yd
c. Heavy weight: 11 and above.
2. As per hue and color .
a. Indigo vat.
b. Sulphur black.
3.As per slub yarns :
a. Warp yarns are slub only.
b. Weft yarn are slub only.
c. Cross Hatch : both way slub i.e. both warp and weft yarn are slub.
4.As per fabric structure /design:
b. Twill (S-twill, Z-twill, herringbone or zigzag twill )