In accordance with the teachings of the Prophet (peace be upon him), there are quite a number of private supplications and words of extolling Allah (subhanahu wa ta'ala) i.e. "Dhikr" which are highly desirable and recommended for recitation at the end of each prayer. These supplications and extollations (dhikr) are non-obligatory and constitute separate forms of "IBADAH" (Worship), hence, reciting them or failure to do so, does not affect the prayer.
However, a person who recites these supplications and extollations would certainly achieve much additional rewards besides the reward Allah grants for the Salaat, INSHAA ALLAH.
We shall now discuss some of these supplications and extollations:
Immediately upon completing the prayer it is recommended for the worshipper to invoke Allah (subhanahu wa ta'ala) and to ask for His forgiveness by saying:" ASTAGHFIRULLAAH " for three times, which means: I seek Allah's forgiveness.
Immediately thereafter, the worshipper may recite the following supplication:" ALLAHUMMA ANTA SALAAM, WA MINKA SALAAM, TABARAKTA YAA DHAL JALALI WAL IKRAAAM " which means:" O Allah, You are the source of peace and from You comes peace, exalted You are, 0 Lord of Majesty and Honor ".
It is also recommended for the worshipper to recite thereafter the following supplication:" LA ILAHA ILAL-LAHU WAHDAHU, LAA SHARIKA LAHU, LAHUL-MULKU, WALAHUL-HAMDU, WAHUWA ALAA KULI SHEY-IN QADIIR " which means:" There is no god but Allah, He is one, He has no partner, to Him belongs sovereignty and to Him belongs praise and has power over all things ".
The person may thereafter say:" ALLAHUMMA LAA MANI'A LIMAA A'7'EYTA WALA MU'Y'IYA LIMA MA NAA TA WA LA YA NFA U DHA L JA DDI MINKALIAD " which means:" O Allah, none can withhold what You have granted, and none can grant what You have withheld, and nothing can be offered by the rich,- richness and fortune comes from You alone ".
And says thereafter:" LAA HOWLA WALAA QUWATA ILLA BILLAAH " which means: " There is no might or power, except from Allah ".
Also, the person may thereafter say:" LAA ILLAHA ILAL LAAHU WALA NA'ABUDU ILLA IYAHU, LAHU NIMA TU WALAHUL FADHLU, WALAHUL THANAA AL-HASSAN ". which means:" There is no god but Allah (subhanahu wa ta'ala) and we worship none but Him, to Him belongs prosperity, and to Him belongs favors and to Him belongs all good praises ".
The person may also say:" LAA ILAHA ILLAL LAAHU MUKHLISINA LAHU DIINA WALAO KARIHAAL KAFIRUUN " which means:" There is no god but Allah, (and we) offer Him sincere devotion even though the unbelievers may detest it ".
Also, says:" ALLAHUMMA A'INNI 'ALA DHIKRIKA, WA SHUKRIKA, WA HUSNA IBA DATIK " which means:" O Allah, help me in remembering You, thanking You and conducting my worship to You in a perfect way ".
The person also says:
SUBHANA -ALLAH - Glory be to ALLAH - (33 times).
AL HAMDU-LILLAH- Praise be to Allah - (33 times)
ALLAHU AKBAR - Allah is great (33 times).
Then, at the end of the above three recitations, the worshipper recites the following supplication:" LAA ILLAHA ILAL LAAHU WAHDAHU LAA SHARIKA LAHU, LAHUL MUL-KU, WALA-HUL HAMDU, WAHUWA ALAA KULI SHEY'INN GADIIR" which means " There is no god but Allah alone, He has no partners, to Him belongs dominion and to Him belongs praises, and He has power over all things ". By this supplication, the worshipper makes up a total of 100 readings. In this regard, it was reported in an authentic prophetic saying that whoever comes up with this 100 phrases at the end of every obligatory prayer:� Allah will forgive him, even if his sins were as abundant as the foam of the sea� (Reported by Imam Muslim).
It is also recommended for the person to recite thereafter "AYAT AL KURSI" i.e: the verse of the Throne (Holy Qur'an 2:255) which has the following English meaning:� Allah! there is no god but He, the Living the Self-Subsisting, the Eternal. No slumber can seize Him nor sleep. To Him belongs all that is in the heavens and on earth. Who is there can intercede in His presence except as He permitteth? He knoweth what (appeareth to His creatures as) before or after or behind them. Nor shall they compass aught of His knowledge except as He willeth. His Throne do extend over the heavens and the earth, and He feeleth no fatigue in guarding and preserving them or He is the Most High, the Supreme (in glory)�. The importance of this verse was confirmed by the Prophet (peace be upon him) 'in an authentic saying that:� Whoever recites this verse at the end of every prayer, nothing will prevent him from entering Paradise� (Reported by Imam Bukhari).
It is also strongly recommended that the person recites the following three chapters of the Holy Qur'an after each prayer:
Surah Al-lkhlaas (Purity of Faith) Qur'an, Chapter 112.
Surah Al-Falaq (The Dawn) - Qur'an, Chapter 113.
Surah An-Naas (Mankind) - Qur'an, Chapter 114.
Note: It is preferred that each of these three chapters be recited for three times at the end of Fajr (Dawn) and Maghrib (Sunset) prayers; while, each chapter may be recited only once at the end of the other obligatory prayers namely, Dhuhr (Noon), Asr (Afternoon) and Isha (Evening) prayers.