Accelerator physicsAccelerator physics
: Accelerator physics is an interdisciplinary topic of applied physics, commonly defined by the intent of designing, building and operating particle accelerators. As such, it may be roughly circumscribed as the study of motion, manipulation and observation of relativistic charged particle beams and their interaction with an accelerator structure by electromagnetic fields.
It is thus also related to other fields like microwave engineering (for acceleration/deflection structures in the radio frequency range), optics with an emphasis on laser physics (laser-particle interaction) and geometrical optics (beam focusing and bending), and computer technology with an emphasis on digital signal processing, e.g. for automated manipulation of the particle beam.
The experiments conducted with particle accelerators are not regarded as part of accelerator physics, but belong (according to the objectives of the experiments) to e.g. particle physics, nuclear physics, condensed matter physics or materials physics. The types of experiments done at a particular accelerator facility are determined by characteristics of the generated particle beam such as average energy, particle type, intensity, and dimensions.
1) Ising, Gustav (1924/1928). "Prinzip Einer Methode Zur Herstellung Von Kanalstrahlen Hoher Voltzahl" (in German). Arkiv fÃ¶r matematik, astronomi och fysik 18 (30): 1â€“4.
The swedish physicist Gustav Ising was the first one to publish the basic concept of a linear accelerator (in this case, as part of a cathode ray tube).
2) WiderÃ¸e, R. (17 December 1928). "Ueber Ein Neues Prinzip Zur Herstellung Hoher Spannungen" (in German). Archiv fuer Elektronik und Uebertragungstechnik 21 (4): 387.
The norwegian physicist Rolf WiderÃ¸e took Isings idea and expanded it. Later, he built the first operational linear accelerator.
3)Kerst, D. W. (1941). "The Acceleration of Electrons by Magnetic Induction". Physical Review 60: 47â€“53. Bibcode 1941PhRv...60...47K. DOI:10.1103/PhysRev.60.47.Link: http://web.ihep.su/dbserv/compas/src/kerst41/eng.pdf
4) Kerst, D. W.; Serber, R. (Jul 1941). "Electronic Orbits in the Induction Accelerator". Physical Review 60 (1): 53â€“58. Bibcode 1941PhRv...60...53K. DOI:10.1103/PhysRev.60.53.
These two articles describe the betatron concept and the first experimental data of a working betatron, built by Donald Kerst.
5) Courant, E. D.; Livingston, M. S.; Snyder, H. S. (1952). "The Strong-Focusing Synchrotonâ€”A New High Energy Accelerator". Physical Review 88 (5): 1190â€“1196. Bibcode 1952PhRv...88.1190C. DOI:10.1103/PhysRev.88.1190.
6) Courant, E. D.; Snyder, H. S. (Jan 1958). "Theory of the alternating-gradient synchrotron". Annals of Physics 3 (1): 1â€“48. DOI:10.1006/aphy.2000.6012.Link: http://ab-abp-rlc.web.cern.ch/ab-abp-rlc/AP-literature/Courant-Snyder-1958.pdf
These publications were the first to introduce the idea of strong focusing to particle beams, enabling the transition from compact circular accelerator concepts to separate-function magnet devices like synchrotrons, storage rings and particle colliders.