Show Posts

This section allows you to view all posts made by this member. Note that you can only see posts made in areas you currently have access to.

Messages - roman

Pages: 1 2 [3] 4 5 ... 43
Angel Investor / Angel investing 101: Doing it right in Bangladesh
« on: February 14, 2021, 11:49:32 PM »
As interest in the Bangladeshi startup ecosystem has grown, so has the responsibility of angel investors and other early stage stakeholders to properly assist founders and startups in preparing for their next stages of growth and funding. At Anchorless Bangladesh, we've spent the last 18 months better understanding how to accelerate the ecosystem relative to regional peers. This included a wide sweep with our friends at LightCastle Partners into the amount, type and sources of funding for startups. Of the roughly US$300 million invested in startups so far, under $25 million came from angels, of which less than a third were from local angels.

In our assessment, lack of consistent and appropriately structured angel funding is one of the single biggest weaknesses that has limited the development of the ecosystem.  In comparison, our regional peers in India, Indonesia and Vietnam have benefitted from angels playing a critical role in the early development and future funding of startups.  Not only does Bangladesh need more angel investors, but we need those who do become angels to invest more effectively and thoughtfully so founders can proceed to raise future rounds of funding abroad to scale their businesses.  Why does this matter?  Because startups and venture capitals can have a generational impact on the Bangladeshi economy, paving the pathway for our own Google, Facebook and Microsoft.

The role of angels in the funding process

Angel investors give startups capital at very early stages — often even before the company has revenue, traction or even a minimum viable product (MVP). While there are cases where angels invest in just an idea, especially for second or third-time founders with a track record, this is rare. Angels are critical in supporting startups before they receive proper seed funding, when ideally an institutional investor would come in with sizable capital to aggressively go for product-market fit and scaling. Angels invest in startups to lock-in a disproportionately high return in return for the risk they take. For instance, well-known angel investor Jason Calacanis received a return of over $100 million for the $25,000 he initially put in.  We encourage angel investors to build rapport with founders and the ecosystem; once an angel is known to properly support founders, they will likely get access to more future deals from the best founders. This explains why some angel investors get repeated deal flow into the best startups.


The process of finding the right founders and funding the startups is not easy—however, if done right, the chances of a better return are significantly greater.  Here are some suggestions for angel investors on how to find the next investment.

Quality of the founder and their focus

Finding the right investment starts with talking to founders. When we at Anchorless meet with companies, a sizable portion of our interest is related to the founders themselves. Similarly, an angel also invests in founders. Why? Because at the early stage of a startup, there's a lot of uncertainty regarding the market and the solution. This is exactly why an investor must trust founders to navigate such complexities. Before an investor puts in a dollar, they must make sure they're betting on those they trust and whose values and goals they align with — especially since an investment can last anywhere from 3-5 years, maybe even longer. Good founders will take capital and use it effectively to create value. If they are jumping from idea to idea without market research and validation, that may be a red flag.

Unit economics & tech-enabled scaling

While a startup will almost always be initially unprofitable, that doesn't mean it shouldn't have a strategy to improve its unit economics. It's a good sign when each successive sale the startup makes loses less money than the previous sale. One way to improve unit economics and scale efficiently is by having founders who have built or are capable of building a tech-enabled process that allows for the company to grow faster as it gets more customers. For instance, if a company needs to hire a new person for every new sale, then it's likely that the founders do not have a clear strategy on how to scale.

Market size and potential

During due diligence, investors should confirm that there is a reasonable market size for the product or service that the founders are envisioning. In addition, ask them, "What  would you do if you had 100% market share?" This will show you how they think beyond their current business.

Valuing the investment

While there are no hard and fast rules for valuing an angel investment, taking a mid-to-long term view here is necessary to ensure a positive outcome. The goal of an angel should be to make sure the company is properly set up for the next round of funding.

Exit strategy

Angel investors need to understand how their capital fits into the larger scheme of the fundraising process. Angels need to structure their involvement in a way from the beginning that allows a startup to successfully raise capital from institutional funds, likely from abroad, in a future round. We stress the importance of doing things the right way early so that an angel investor has a clearer path in actualising a return—or, in other words, get money back for the investment. In order to do this, angel investors must be able to sell their shares into the market either through an acquisition, secondary sale or IPO. It's important to gauge the possibility of these options for each company.


Prospective investors not only need to assess startups with the right criteria but also need to evaluate their own motivations so that they can provide the kind of capital and support. Before getting into angel investing, prospective investors must ask themselves why they want to invest: Is it financial gain? If so, what is your time horizon? Is it personal satisfaction? Maybe a story to tell at a dinner party? Is it to show support to the community? How important is return?

"Am I interested in investing in a startup or an SME?" This reflection is critical; the inability to understand the difference between the two has caused significant issues between investors and founders and, at times, negatively impacted the ecosystem's progress. Capital should only be allocated to a startup when the goals and vision of the investor and the founders are aligned.

The following is a compilation of issues based on feedback from local founders currently affecting the Bangladeshi angel investment scene:

• Angels taking more than around 20% of companies: As a startup is expected to raise multiple rounds of capital, it's important that the founders retain a sizable portion of equity in order to remain incentivised. We have  repeatedly seen that founders who own a larger part of their company will work on its success more than founders who own a small percentage of a startup. Globally, angels usually do not take over 15% in the initial round. Due to the risky nature of the Bangladeshi ecosystem, taking a slightly higher percentage within reason is understandable. Ultimately, an angel investor's goal is to get the highest absolute dollar return regardless of percentage; 5% of $100 million is preferable to 20% of $10 million.

• Angels taking board control: In short, when an institutional investor (such as a venture capital fund) invests in a company, it wants to make sure the founders are in control of their company instead of an early angel who came in with a relatively small amount of early capital — especially when they are looking to put in a much larger sum.

• Focus on short-term metrics such as break-even and profitability: As discussed above, the primary goal for a startup should be to create defensible value through providing a scalable product, service or technology. Focusing on these two metrics will often stunt long-term value creation which may limit the investor's return.

• Asking for dividends: Startups do not pay dividends as all positive cashflow a company may produce should be put back into the business for further growth.

• Failing to add value beyond the money: The best angels provide mentorship, aid in business development and help with fundraising to further increase the value of the startup.

• Focus on physical assets: In general, asset-light startups will be valued higher due to their ability to use capital and scale more efficiently. For many, this may seem counter-intuitive, but the goal of founders is to maximize the return on every dollar raised.

That is easier to do through technology than physical assets.

• Not aiming high enough: Investors need to recognize that a startup should at least aim to dominate a market. Lowered expectations may stunt the company's growth and make it less attractive to future venture investors.     

• Funding properly and following up on financial commitments: Investors must allocate capital in no more than two tranches—and not monthly. An investor should want founders to worry about who to hire next or what product feature to add rather than focusing on whether they will be able to pay their employees.

To reiterate, the reason an angel invests in a founder is because they trust them. Investors should be there for guidance and support, not to treat them as employees without their own will and direction. Additionally, investors need to remember that if the founders' mental health does not allow them to operate at optimal efficiency, the investor's return will be limited. When we think of the best founders globally, we see the strength of their leadership and the support of their investors through their journey as a key complement to their success.


The most important thing to understand is that, while an angel may lose money in the majority of their investments, the ones that are successful should yield a disproportionately positive overall return. So, how does one approach angel investing knowing this? By creating a diversified portfolio. Once a potential investor decides how much money they will allocate to angel investing, the next step is to diversify risk.

For instance, this is how we explain the risk management process to potential angels: if an angel investor has $100,000 to invest, make 5 investments ranging from $15,000 to $25,000. The goal is to champion your portfolio companies' ambitions without constant risk of failure. Per our previous point, if we allocated $20,000 into five investments, consider the difference between the two following scenarios:

In Scenario A, each of the five investments return 25% resulting in a total return of $25,000. In Scenario B, however, four of the five investments go to zero—but the fifth investment returns 2,000%, or 20x, bringing in a return of $400,000!  This kind of portfolio allocation is what makes angel investors successful.

 We remind angel investors that supporting ambitious founders can often result in better returns for an overall portfolio than seemingly safe business models.

The impact of quality angels

When angel investing is done right, its value to the ecosystem and economy as a whole cannot be understated. Think about what percentage of global GDP is attributed to venture-funded startups like Facebook and Google, or the fact that Gojek contributed $7.1 billion to Indonesian GDP in 2019. As angels are a critical component of early stage funding, without their presence, startup ecosystems can be held back. In Bangladesh, the need for greater angel funding is currently a limiting factor for the success of our brilliant, young founders.  By increasing local angel capital and bringing in global angels, including NRBs (non-resident Bangladeshis) through networks such as Bangladesh Angels, we can set up our startups for future success.

Quality angel investors can help founders take their companies to the seed stage where they can get further funding from institutional funds, including a vast amount of global capital that is actively looking to enter Bangladesh.

The impact of venture capital is significant to an economy. Companies such as Uber and Facebook had angel investors before they became companies that changed the way we live. In Bangladesh, only a few startups have scaled to a level of national visibility, yet none with the possible exception of bKash are at the level of funding and valuation that regional peers in India or Indonesia have achieved.

For Bangladesh to go from $500 GDP per capita to $1,000, and then $1,000 to $2,000e was achievable with low-level labor arbitrage, but for the country to double from $2,000 to $4,000 and beyond, we'll need to not only nurture home-grown startups but also build a culture of local wealth creation by empowering local founders to move up the value chain and bring in global capital.

In celebration of our country's 50th anniversary, let this next decade be filled with opportunities for every one of us.  Let's give our founders the tools to put Bangladesh on the global map as a destination for the startups that may come to shape our collective futures.

The author is the CEO and Founding Partner of Anchorless Bangladesh, an early stage venture investment fund.


Tamil Nadu: Transgender Persons Get Training On Agriculture Entrepreneurship In Tiruchirapalli

Eight members from the trans community were educated about the opportunities available to them on agri-entrepreneurship by tapping the potential of banana which is a widely grown fruit in the region. The training session was part of NRCB's (National Research Centre for Banana) mission on 'reaching the unreached'.

In an effort to make the transgender community in Tamil Nadu's Tiruchirapalli self-reliant and help them earn a dignified living, the National Research Centre for Banana (NRCB) functioning under the Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR) organised a two-day training programme.

According to The Hindu, as many as eight members from the community were educated about the opportunities available to them on agri-entrepreneurship by tapping the potential of banana which is a widely grown fruit in the region. The programme comprising of the training session was part of NRCB's mission on 'reaching the unreached'.

The publication further reported that the programme was funded by the National Bank for Agriculture and Rural Development (NABARD). It is the apex body for providing funds on credit for development of agriculture and small scale businesses in the country.

Kajol, president of the Social Action For Emancipation (SAFE) group, reportedly also attended the session along with the eight members from the community. Her organization has been committed towards working for the upliftment of the transgender community.

The training session was kick-started by Anand Kumar Singh, Deputy Director General, Horticultural Science, ICAR, through video conferencing. He explained the scope of opportunities available to the participants as entrepreneurs, stressing on the importance of branding and country-wide marketing of the possibilities as well ensuring support for the such initiatives.

Advertisement B. K. Pandey, Assistant Director General, ICAR, informed about the government schemes available including for establishing cold storage and supply chain management which could help in reducing the financial burden drastically. S. Uma who is the director of the NRCB said that was a first-of-its-kind initiative rolled out by the Centre for the economic empowerment of transgenders through banana cultivation and utilisation. She further added that the training would provide them ideas on exploring business options on various banana based products. She said that organization would host more training programmes for the community and also offer incubation facilities for the interested trainees. Reports stated that the scientists at NRCB provided hands-on training to the participants on preparation of banana flower pickle, central stem juice, low-fat banana chips, raising nursery for ornamental banana and multiplying traditional banana varieties by macro propagation. The session briefed them on the 'how-to' raise funds for sustainable business projects to secure funds from potential investors and on the procedure to operate the business. Kajol has a higher secondary qualification and holds a diploma as a beautician suggested that the initiative be scaled up for the benefit of transgender community across the country.

Transforming The Lives

The transgender community has been subjected to prejudices and have been resorting to practises such as begging on the streets, train stations, dancing on festivities to earn a livelihood. However, increasingly the society has been seeing individuals from the community refusing to conform to the standards and taking the decisions of turning their lives around. Individuals from the transgender community have been taking over the non-conventional career paths not just to break the stereotype but also to empower the community. Education and suitable job opportunities have been the major contributing factors helping the transgender community shatter the stereotype and live honorably.

Transwoman Turns Entrepreneur

27-year-old employee-turned-entrepreneur transwoman from Bihar made the headlines when established her own cafe. Urooz Hussain set up her cafe named 'Street Temptation' in Uttar Pradesh's Noida at Sector 119. Describing the idea behind the cafe, she said that it was to inspire members from her community to work towards earning a life of dignity. Urooz shared that she had experienced workplace harassment which led her to establish her own business to promote a culture of equality. Speaking to ANI, the entrepreneur said, "I was subjected to harassment at my workplaces so I decided to start my own cafe that treats everyone equally.

I hope this will inspire others from my community." "I was born as a 'normal' child, as a boy, but later realised that even though I have a male body, my feelings are a like a girl which resulted in questioning about my identity in my teens. I faced a lot of difficulty in overcoming this situation. My male relatives used to bully me a lot. My father is strict, he had created a boundary within which I needed to behave as a boy. This was not okay with me. I used to play with dolls when I was young, used to interact more with girls than I did boys. So, I left my hometown in 2013 and shifted to Delhi and started my transition as a transwoman," Hussain said in a video interview with The Quint.

The Logical Indian Crew
Published on -30 Jan 2021

Technology / Embracing Digital Technology in the New Normal
« on: January 28, 2021, 04:07:47 PM »
The Impact and Contributions of ICT during a time of Global Crisis:

Embracing Digital Technology in the New Normal

Pls read the attachment to know the Positive Impact and Contributions of ICT During a Time of Global Crisis

A resource of WITSA (World Information Technology and Services Alliance)

Higher Education / Business Education Post-Pandemic
« on: January 28, 2021, 12:51:45 PM »
If one sector of higher education is all set to see major changes post-pandemic, it is the domain management education.

Business education in India has proliferated with more than one thousand independent management colleges apart from 900 plus universities having a management education faculty or department. Alongside, commerce education is common in more than 20,000 colleges and the universities in the country.

Business education traditionally has been plagued with the following challenges:

It is delivered largely face-to-face with concepts and theories of management or usual taxation & accounting laws and principles being the focus; It is delivered by resource persons who have rarely practiced what they are teaching, and from books of management largely written in the Western nations; It is evaluated with a semester-end or an annual written examination which is the base of scoring, awarding degrees and considering for jobs; and It is heavily biased towards jobs in large corporations, indigenous or MNCs, while in reality the actual engagement later is in MSME sector or in small start-ups or entrepreneurial ventures of the learners of today.

The pre-pandemic times already necessitated many changes which several universities started adopting, and the pandemic has now quickly fastened the process of redefining business education in the country. The changes in business education which we may see in the next decade are as follows:

Business education will begin with a flipped classroom model, where the learners shall be provided multiple learning resources as required for that course, including open source resources and proprietary resources of the mentors themselves. These resources shall be videos, podcasts, pdfs, book chapter, case-study, info-graphics, interviews, slideshow, etc.

The learners are expected to develop asynchronous self-learning muscles in the first place, evolving in learning to learn, and then take up their doubts and challenges in synchronous sessions, which can be digital or physical, or at times even PhyGital (some in class and some online).

The third level in business learning then shall be problem-solving, critical thinking exercises with simulated situations given by the mentors to examine comprehension of the subject concerned, and application of the insights and knowledge gained in the given situations. Case-studies been already understood earlier, the learners shall be next asked to develop their own case-studies dependent on their interest areas. Alongside, after initiation to overall management, or commerce, principles and practices, the learner is supposed to take up a broad specialization area, which, at the first level can be marketing, human resources, finance and systems for the management learners. For commerce learners, it can be advanced accounts, taxation, actuarial sciences, business economics, etc.

The specialization next, especially at the Masters level, moves on to a niche area of specialization within the broad domain selected. In management it can be focussing on retail, services, leadership, budget management, project management, banking & insurance, learning & development, brand management, rural or agri-business management, data analytics management, energy management, logistics and supply chain management, IT & technology management, telecom management, entertainment & media management, social business management, development management, pharmaceuticals management, strategic management, Export-Import management, Sales Management, and the like. Similarly in commerce, one can go deep into one domain within taxation or accounting, for example.

It is also important to know quantitative aspects often neglected in traditional management education, like, econometrics, statistics, quantitative analyses software, big data analytics, IT applications of all sorts as needed. A couple of courses covering these will be very significant, more so today in post pandemic times.

It is significant at this stage to develop a few case-studies of success and/or failure of business initiatives in the chosen niche specialization area. Alongside, for hands-on experience, a couple of live projects and at least one major full-time internship should be done in the chosen niche area of business. In today’s times, one can have a low-engagement online internship also running along with the academic program, managing time and using the weekends well.

Higher emotional intelligence, ability to be a team-worker and when required to lead from a remote location, professional skills and work ethics, and a stronger sense of life skills are other necessities heightened in their significance post pandemic. Having a minor specialization in ITES with IT-Computer Science school, or in brand communication with the media school, or in corporate law or cyber law with the law school of the university one is studying, will be a big advantage and differentiator in a market-place full of management generalists with plain vanilla BBA-MBA degrees.

Jobs, Employers & Salaries:

On the jobs front, first lesson to be learnt is that one should seek a career and not just a job which is the manifestation of the chosen career at a point of time. If the focus is on the career per se, all or most of the above needs to be taken care of for better jobs.

Jobs today are available quite well in retail sector (online and offline together), pharma & healthcare sector, energy sector (conventional and non-conventional together), food sector, and in MSMEs as they shall be the driver of economic revival in the world which just now had 5% contraction last year from a total of 80 trillion dollar size, and in India which has gone through a huge 23% contraction in economy.

A quick survey with the placements offices of a few universities, including a talk with the corporate relations director Abhijit Giri of the university I am associated with, shows the following trends today:

The top six sectors employing freshmen from B-schools in India today are edutech, logistics & supply chain, banking and insurance, telecommunications, ecommerce/retail and analytics & consulting, and in this order. Among edutech enterprises, BYJU’s, Jaro, Toppers, and Extramarks are recruiting heavily, while DTDC and SafeExpress are the top logistics recruiters. Bank of America, ICICI, Aditya Birla and JR Laddha have been major recruiters in at least two universities I talked to in the banking and finance sector, along with a number of micro finance organizations. Reliance Jio takes the cake among telecoms and Amazon, e-kart and Flipkart in the ecommerce segment. AC Nielson and Emphasis major data and consulting recruiters. Our university had 94% final placements with range being from Rs.3.5 lacs to Rs.10 lacs per annum package, with Edutech giving highest packages, and the data analytics and consultancy companies paying next highest.

Re-invent yourself, re-define your career goals, re-strategize your journey, re-focus on specifics, re-learn after much unlearning, and re-invigorate the economy, post pandemic, taking the right lessons: that’s the mantra in the B-Schools of India today.

The author is the Pro Vice Chancellor of Kolkata based Adamas University.

You need to know / About Covid-19: The Great Reset
« on: January 28, 2021, 12:42:05 PM »
Since it made its entry on the world stage, COVID-19 has dramatically torn up the existing script of how to govern countries, live with others and take part in the global economy. Written by World Economic Forum Founder Klaus Schwab and Monthly Barometer author Thierry Malleret, COVID-19: The Great Reset considers its far-reaching and dramatic implications on tomorrow’s world.

The book’s main objective is to help understand what’s coming in a multitude of domains. Published in July 2020, in the midst of the crisis and when further waves of infection may still arise, it is a hybrid between a contemporary essay and an academic snapshot of a crucial moment in history. It includes theory and practical examples but is chiefly explanatory, containing many conjectures and ideas about what the post-pandemic world might, and perhaps should, look like.

The book has three main chapters, offering a panoramic overview of the future landscape. The first assesses what the impact of the pandemic will be on five key macro categories: the economic, societal, geopolitical, environmental and technological factors. The second considers the effects in micro terms, on specific industries and companies. The third hypothesizes about the nature of the possible consequences at the individual level.

In early July 2020, we are at a crossroads, the authors of COVID-19: The Great Reset argue. One path will take us to a better world: more inclusive, more equitable and more respectful of Mother Nature. The other will take us to a world that resembles the one we just left behind – but worse and constantly dogged by nasty surprises. We must therefore get it right. The looming challenges could be more consequential than we have until now chosen to imagine, but our capacity to reset could also be greater than we had previously dared to hope.

For whole content pls see the attachment

Robotics / Robots and International Economic Development
« on: January 25, 2021, 11:33:50 PM »
Given the importance of innovation and advanced technology competitiveness to the U.S. economy, it is heartening to see recent congressional proposals, such as the Endless Frontier Act, that propose significantly increased federal funding for research and development (R&D) targeted at key national priorities. However, in considering budget proposals for significantly increased federal support, Congress will be confronted with an array of conflicting information; some of it wrong, much of it misleading.

In particular, conservatives committed to limited government have made a number of inaccurate claims about the impact of federal funding for scientific and engineering research. What is perhaps most surprising is that these statements are almost always offered as doctrine, and not backed up by scholarly evidence, perhaps because the scholarly evidence on the issue directly contradicts their claims.

To help clarify some of these claims, this report identifies and responds to five of the most common. The bottom line is it is clearly in the national interest for Congress to appropriate significantly more funding for scientific and engineering research.

Because of abiding faith in “free markets” and a commitment to limited government, many conservatives oppose increases in federal funding of science and engineering research. To justify their argument, many make the claim that this is not additive; that it simply crowds out private sector R&D funding, and we are left with the same amount of R&D as before. The Heritage Foundation has stated, “By attempting to force government-developed technologies into the market, the government diminishes the role of the entrepreneur and crowds out private-sector investment.”1

In fact, the opposite is true: Federal support for basic and applied research is a complement to private research, because industry is able to build on the knowledge discoveries from publicly supported research, making their own research more productive and effective. These research results provide firms—large and small—with a common platform of basic knowledge, making their own research more productive and effective. In addition, government support for a promising line of research helps convince firms to boost their own efforts in these areas.

After reviewing over 60 academic articles on whether public sector R&D crowds out private sector investments, Cockburn and Henderson concluded:

There are a number of econometric studies that, while imperfect and undoubtedly subject to improvement and revision, between them make a quite convincing case for a high rate of return to public science in this [life-sciences] industry. It is worth noting that there are, so far as we are aware, no systematic quantitative studies that have found a negative impact of public science.2

A working paper from the World Bank combs through recent evidence on government funding for R&D, and finds that government funding significantly increases R&D investment.3 Although there is a large variation in the type of R&D funding examined, the study’s methodologies, and the location of the studies, the results are clear: Government funding boosts R&D spending. The paper tackles another important question as well: whether government spending “crowds out” private sector spending. The paper finds evidence of the opposite, however, with data that shows public funding actually incentivizes firms to invest more in R&D.4

Federal support for basic and applied research is a complement to private research, because industry is able to build on the knowledge discoveries from publicly supported research, making their own research more productive and effective.

Another study finds that for every additional dollar of publicly funded research added to the stock of government R&D, it induces an additional 27 cents of private R&D investment. For the life sciences industry, Ehrlich found that a dollar of National Institutes of Health (NIH) support for research leads to an increase in private medical research of even greater levels, roughly 32 cents.5 An Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) study finds that “direct government funding of R&D performed by firms (either grants or procurement) has a positive effect on business financed R&D (one dollar given to firms results in 1.70 dollars of research on average).” Most other studies of the issue find similar results, with the effect differing from around 10 cents to 30 cents of additional R&D for every dollar of government funding for university or government laboratory research.

It is important to note that some of these studies show examinations of a period when federal R&D was more than double what it is today as a share of gross domestic product (GDP). And even then, federal funding crowded in private sector R&D investment. As such, the idea that the increases being proposed today in bills such as the Endless Frontier Act would crowd out private funding makes little sense.

It is all well and good to support federal R&D, but many market fundamentalists argue that firms already have strong incentives to fund R&D. They therefore argue that increases in R&D, particularly to key technology areas related to U.S. industrial competitiveness, are not needed. Heritage Analyst Katie Tubb stated, “I would question why is it the role of the federal government to be funding science across the board. The private sector plays a huge role in supporting science.”6

The question is not whether the private sector has incentives to invest in R&D; it clearly does. The question is whether those incentives are sufficient to maximize total economic welfare—and the answer to that is unequivocally no.

Economists have long attempted to measure the extent of spillovers from business R&D. As noted economist Zvi Griliches wrote:

There has been a significant number of reasonably well-done studies all pointing in the same direction: R&D spillovers are present, their magnitude may be quite large, and social rates of return remain significantly above private rates.… The estimated social rates of return look, actually, surprisingly uniform in their indication of the importance of such spillovers.7

A 1998 study by Jones and Williams shows the social rate of return from R&D and concludes that the optimal level was at least two to four times actual investment.8 The fact that some economists estimate a 7 percent private return and 30 percent social rate of return on R&D suggests the optimal level of R&D investment in the U.S. economy is three to four times larger than the total current level of private investment.9 The overall social return from investment in information technology generally is over 80 percent.10 When companies do basic research, the spillovers are even greater—as high as 150 percent.11

The question is not whether the private sector has incentives to invest in R&D; it clearly does. The question is whether those incentives are sufficient to maximize total economic welfare—and the answer to that is unequivocally no.

Okubo and colleagues examined many different studies and concludes that the private return is 26 percent and the social return 66 percent.12 Most recently, Bloom and Van Reenen examined the change in the rate of R&D spillovers; in other words the differential rate between private and social returns from R&D. The authors found that spillovers actually increased over the last 40 years, with the ratio of social to private returns increasing from a factor of three to four. As they wrote, “There is certainly no evidence that the need to subsidize R&D has diminished.”13 This underinvestment means, absent policies to raise the after-tax rate of private return from R&D closer to the rate of the public return (either through R&D tax incentives, direct funding of business R&D, or even support for government and university research that businesses can use), economic growth will be reduced, and the new innovations that will improve our lives will come about more slowly.

Economists Benjamin Jones and Lawrence Summers estimated that every dollar invested in innovation returns four dollars in social benefits. But these social returns compound as much as 2,000 percent (or $20 for every dollar invested) when considering health benefits, international spillovers, and if new firm creation drives the bulk of productivity gains that result from new ideas.14 Another study uses firm-level data for Canadian businesses between 2000 and 2012 to estimate the economic impact of these positive spillovers, finding that they amount to an additional 33 percent return on investment in R&D, on average. This windfall for society comes above and beyond the profits firms themselves make from their innovations.15

Some free-market fundamentalists have dismissed the role of federal research spending, arguing that it has minimal impact on productivity. For example, in a Wall Street Journal op-ed titled “The Myth of Basic Science,” Matt Ridley cited a U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) article as proof the return on investment from publicly financed R&D is near zero.16 He wrote:

In 2007, the economist Leo Sveikauskas of the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics concluded that returns from many forms of publicly financed R&D are near zero and that many elements of university and government research have very low returns, overwhelmingly contribute to economic growth only indirectly, if at all.

But what the BLS article is actually measuring is the impact of that R&D on the productivity of government agencies, which is in fact low.17 After all, when NIH funds research to treat diabetes or cancer, the results do very little to make NIH workers more productive.

In fact, the BLS article concludes that “many advances arising from university or government research eventually have an important indirect effect on growth,” and that “programs, especially those in which university scientists compete for grants, such as the National Science Foundation, the National Institutes of Health, some Department of Agriculture programs, and DARPA [Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency] in the Department of Defense, appear to have a remarkable record.”18

Ridley also misled when he cited an OECD study on the sources of growth among its member countries in the 1970s, 1980s, and 1990s as evidence that “whereas privately funded research and development stimulated economic growth, publicly funded research had no economic impact whatsoever. None. This earthshaking result has never been challenged or debunked.”19

Yet, the OECD study Ridley cites immediately qualifies that finding with: “[T]here are important interactions between public and private R&D activities as well as difficult-to-measure benefits from public R&D (e.g. defence, energy, health and university research) from the generation of basic knowledge that provides technology spillovers in the long run.” Moreover, later, more comprehensive OECD studies find government-funded research does have a major effect on innovation and growth.20

Some federal R&D, such as the study of black holes, likely has little effect on productivity. But the real question is whether most areas of federal R&D expenditures have significant impacts on productivity, and the evidence clearly suggest the answer is yes.

This is not surprising, because virtually every scholarly study examining the issue finds the same thing. For example, Griliches concluded that federal R&D in industry has a positive effect on productivity, though less of an impact than privately financed research.21 Likewise, Guellec and van Pottelsberghe de la Potterie found that government research expenditures, in addition to private R&D, contribute to the rate of economic growth.22 Another study of the U.K. economy finds evidence of spillovers of private R&D and public R&D, with an estimated rate of return to public R&D of 20 percent.23 Similarly, to compensate for this, the study examines the number of researchers in the public and private sectors between 1981 and 2017 across 20 OECD countries, finding that a doubling of private researchers increases productivity growth by 4.3 to 7.2 percent, while doubling public researchers increases productivity growth by 6.1 to 20.6 percent. Similarly, economist Dierk Herzer examined the number of researchers in the public and private sectors between 1981 and 2017 across 20 OECD countries, finding that a doubling of private researchers increases productivity growth by 4.3 to 7.2 percent, while doubling public researchers increases productivity growth by 6.1 to 20.6 percent.24

To be clear, some federal R&D, such as the study of black holes, likely has little effect on productivity. But the real question is whether most areas of federal R&D expenditures have significant impacts on productivity, and the evidence clearly suggest the answer is yes.

Some have argued that the fact that federal R&D as a share of GDP has fallen is irrelevant and that all that matters is absolute amount. If the absolute funding levels have not fallen, all must be well.

Let’s start with the data. The federal government spends approximately $125 billion per year in R&D for everything from agriculture to human health, national defense, manufacturing, and energy. Unfortunately, despite a modest uptick in the nominal value of federal support for R&D, the overall trend is a decline.

This is true in constant dollar spending. When controlling for inflation, according to the National Science Foundation the federal government spent 15 percent less on R&D in 2017 as it did in 2010.25 As a share of GDP, the decline is much steeper. Indeed, in 22 of the 28 years from 1990 to 2018, federal R&D spending made up a smaller share of GDP than the year before, sinking to just 0.61 percent of GDP in 2018, the lowest level since 1955, according to the latest data from the National Science Foundation.

Figure 1: Federal R&D as a share of GDP

To understand just how far off the pace recent federal funding for research has been, figure 1 shows the recent fiscal year’s funding levels would need to increase to match prior year R&D-to-GDP levels. To match levels of the 1980s, for example, funding today would need to increase by about 80 percent, or $100 billion per year.

There are two problems with the view that the United States doesn’t need federal funding for research to stay at least constant with GDP growth. First, America is competing with China, which, as its economy grows, is funding vastly more R&D than three decades ago. The United States is in a commercial and military race with China, and that race is not about what it does relative to its past, but to China’s present and future. Second, as Nick Bloom and colleagues have shown, the global productivity of R&D has fallen, in large part because the technical problems today are much more difficult than the ones half a century ago.26 To take DARPA as an example, its funding as a share of GDP has fallen by half, which means DARPA innovation outputs have likely fallen by at least three quarters relative to GDP. This means that if R&D doesn’t at least keep up with GDP, there will continue to be less innovation every year.

Some argue that in a time of high joblessness there is little point in funding R&D because it creates few jobs. To be sure, the principal goal of federal R&D is not to create jobs; it is to boost innovation, productivity and competitiveness, and national security. At the same time, however, it does create jobs. The Information Technology and Information Foundation (ITIF) estimated that an additional one-time $20 billion investment in research would create approximately 402,000 American jobs for one year. Our estimate projects that this level of funding would create or retain approximately 196,000 direct and indirect jobs.27 Moreover, to the extent federal R&D supports commercial innovation, this too would lead to job creation. For example, Battelle Memorial Institute estimated that in 2010 the federally funded Human Genome Project supported the creation of over 360,000 jobs.28

Free market conservatives are right about a lot. It’s important to limit the role of government in a number of areas, including ensuring it doesn’t overregulate key parts of the economy. But when it comes to federal investment in science, the free-marketers’ argument that the private sector can and will do most of the heavy lifting and that government can let federal support for R&D stagnate or even shrink is mistaken. That is a recipe for continued lags in innovation, productivity growth, national competitiveness, and national security.

Robert D. Atkinson (@RobAtkinsonITIF) is the founder and president of ITIF.


Respected Reader,

Pls see the attachment for the Post COVID-19 Jobs and Skills in Bangladesh


Higher Education Ahead- Innovations Galore Like Never Before

If demonetization leapfrogged fintech, COVID induced lockdown and physical distancing induced long closure of campuses across the world have tremendously pushed edtech ahead. We have come to a time when blended learning delivered phygitally (physical and digital together) has come to stay. Beyond this complete campus lockdown phase, during which time mentoring-learning-assessing has gone online globally, we shall be moving towards blended phygital education in 2021, which will be the new normal ahead.

Changes Emerging:

For this, first one has to be a digital personality with smartphone and net connection, and with laptop and wifi connection. Next, one has to learn how to create, deliver and engage in content across multiple online platforms, and how to take matter learnt online to matter practiced offline face to face. Third, one has to now learn assessment with open book through analysis and application, through quiz, through applied projects, through phygital presentation and actual work in labs and studios after using virtual labs and studios.
Fourth, education will now move from a system imposed disciplined endeavour to voluntarily participated and internalized process. It will be truly a learner-centric education now in the new normal, and shall be far more participative than the past.

Hence, teachers cannot remain the sage on the stage, telling the last word in syllabus, its interpretation, its delivery and its assessment. S/he has to be the mentor who mentors inside and beyond the classroom, creates proprietary content (self-videos, ppts, cases and lectures) and brings together aggregated content from open sources (youtube videos, URLs, cases, slideshares, MOOCs, etc). Mentors have to motivate, show a path, be the agony aunts and uncles, friends, and start from a structured syllabus and move to organic syllabus.

And the students cannot be the pre COVID times typical students any more going ahead. Students study in classroom, are taught by teachers, limited to given syllabus, and study for marks, grades, degrees. Learners study within and beyond the classroom, from mentors, peers, personal experience, books, digitally aggregated content, through projects and assignments. Learners learn for lifetime, and hence learn to learn further as things learnt today are obsolete soon.

Also, with Artificial Intelligence, robotics, automation, Machine Learning and internet of things being the other emerging realities, the skills for mass production or education to do the same work repeatedly will be totally irrelevant ahead when machines will take over almost all such work (more than three fourths of all human work today). Hence, new age skills, apart from technology use, have to be in areas like creativity, innovation, incubation, problem-solving, teamwork, leadership, critical thinking, design thinking, empathy, emotional intelligence and risk management. Each of these can be qualitatively and quantitatively mentored to any youth from an early age of say 15 years till 25 years of age, and will become his or her second nature.

Yes, for this, doubling public education expenditure, digital access to the hinterland, considering digital connectivity as a human right, digital literacy as a fundamental pre-requisite in any work, providing cell phones and laptops or tabs en masse, announcing cheaper data packages for students, CSR in the field of domain of digital connectivity by corporate houses, etc and more would be needed soonest to bridge the yawning digital divide in the otherwise class divided society.

Force of the Pandemic in Education:

What demonetization of late 2016 did to fintech in India, then COVID19 pandemic of early 2020 did that to edtech and healthtech world-over. There is a forced migration to digital learning which is laying bare the underbelly of the much touted Digital India campaign a couple of years ago.

World-over more than 770 million students have been disrupted by COVID19 and the consequent lockdowns globally. The United Nations has warned of the unparalleled scale and speed of the educational disruption being caused by Coronavirus. India has over 37 million students enrolled in higher education. An interruption in the delivery of education has already caused a disruption that might be long-run.

Learning or academics or education broadly has three functions: creation of learning content through research, writing, packaging with visuals; dissemination of learning through classes, lectures, notes, self-study, discussions; & assessment and evaluation of the education of the learner by various methods. All these three have been majorly impacted by the self-isolation imposed to ensure social distancing so that the learners and the mentors may first be protected from the spread of the infection of COVID19. The lockdown across the world is simultaneously a boon and a bane for the teaching-learning community today.

Digital Learning Tools Today:

The pandemic requires universities to rapidly offer online learning to their students. Fortunately, technology and content are available to help universities transition online quickly and with high quality, especially on the digital plank, though at a cost and with the risk of several teachers and administrators being forced to go out of the system.

Digital learning on the go or from distance calls for tech-led holistic solutions. It requires several content pieces to be transmitted digitally. These content pieces can be in the form of pdfs, ppts, URLs, YouTube links, podcast links, case-studies, etc. There can also be e-books, audio-books, kindle based content, magzter sourced magazines, etc. Then this can involve learning without being face to face through boxes, as in Google Class, or learning face to face as in Zoom live audio-visual discussions. People may also use GoToMeetings or MicrosoftMeet sessions also. Attendance can be taken on Google Spreadsheet and through Whatsapp Group chat of a batch of students too.

There are other tools that can take digital go miles ahead. Flipped classroom method with an active learning classroom can have all study resources given a day or two in advance, and the actual session starting with a quick quiz, then doubts clearance, and thereafter a few issues of the future or counter points to what were given earlier, like possible different scenarios or new research findings not shared earlier. This is quite an effective way of learning, which is internalized, collaborative, experiential, bottom-up, as distinctly different from teaching, which is instructional, hierarchic and top-down.

Then there are MOOCs, collaborative distance learning, wikis, blogs etc. Individual resource-rich institutes develop their customized secured and IPR protected Learning Management Systems, through the use of BlackBoard or TCSion LMS. Other LMS options like Kaltura or Impartus allowing video recording of talks also ar in use in many places. There are CourseEra courses, Swayam online lessons from UGC and similar other avenues to learn online.

Learning digitally can be further assisted with Virtual Reality (VR), Augmented Reality (AR) and Mixed Reality (MR) which can take the viewer to an enhanced experience even integrating scenarios which are yet to happen creatively bringing them within the learning experience. These are immersive and contextual experiences, and artificial intelligence driven chatbots can further enhance the digital interface of the learner and the mentor.

Digital Learning Value-adds:

Incorporating big data analytics and content management, educators can develop an individualized curriculum that enhances how each student learns (e.g. playlist of learning content in WiseWire changing for each student). Many in the West have started the use of the millennials' language and style: Khan Academy video lessons, YouTube use, distinct style and language for young learners. Twitter, Tumblr, Snapchat, Imessage, Instagram, Facebook &Whatsapp are being creatively integrated with school education. There is a case of a management school in India, where the professor sends a 3 minutes interesting video on the subject he is taking up next through group whatsapp to increase interest in the batch towards the topic being taught.

In the US, the smart-phone applications like Socrative and Plickers are helping teachers interact and assess students’ progress, collaborate via cloud-based applications to work and solve a common goal. Teachers can publish real-time quizzes and polls for students via mobile devices to keep them engaged.

Further, using anything from iMovie to WeVideo, learners can create video as a learning resource. YouTube (with privacy settings) and SeeSaw or Flipgrid are also alternatives learners can make use of. The benefits of SeeSaw and Flipgrid are that students can add voice recordings or text sharing feedback with peers. Students became the co-creators of content and as a result, more engaged, including their parents. Useful apps like Book Creator, Explain Everything and EduCreations can be utilised towards this end.

There are various software used to create digital content, like Camtasia, Raptivity, Captivate, Articulate Online, etc.

Yes alongside, social media use extensively will support learning online. Facebook Page can broadcast updates and alerts. Facebook Group or Google Hangout with advanced features in G-suite can stream live lectures and host discussions. Twitter can act as a class message board. The 256 characters help to keep messages succinct. Instagram can be used for photo essays. One can create a class blog for discussions. There are many different platforms available, such as WordPress, SquareSpace, Wix, Blogger for that. And, one can create a class-specific Pinterest board as well.

Digital Assessment & Evaluation:

Online quiz, open book examination with time-managed and proctored question paper delivered online, applied questions not based on memory but comprehension, telephonic interview etc have been the usual ways of digital assessment and evaluation of learning.

Assessment refers to learner performance; it helps us decide if students are learning and where improvement in that learning is needed.Evaluation refers to a systematic process of determining the merit value or worth of the instruction or programme; it helps us determine if a course is effective (course goals) and informs our design efforts.Assessment and evaluation can be both formative (carried out during the course) and summative (carried out following the course). There can be many ways for the same. Mentors can make learners aware of expectations in advance (e.g. one week for feedback from deadline) and keep them posted (announcement: all projects have been marked). For example, one can create tests that are multiple choice, true/false, or short answer essays and one can set the assessments to automatically provide feedback.

Possibilities in Education beyond COVID:

Online learning is the big winner from this – across all education levels; so proving quality now is at centre stage. However, going ahead, in the post COVID times, blended learning will be the way to go. The biggest future benefits of virtual instruction will come after our professors and students return to their physical classrooms. The necessity of teaching and learning with asynchronous (Canvas, Blackboard, D2L) and synchronous (Zoom) platforms will yield significant benefits when these methods are layered into face-to-face instruction. We will come back from COVID-19 with a much more widely shared understanding that digital tools are complements, not substitutes, for the intimacy and immediacy of face-to-face learning. Since professors are now moving content online, precious classroom time will be more productively utilized for discussion, debate and guided practice.

Moving ahead in the New Normal, teacher may more be called a mentor now as information and knowledge are at the fingertips of the students faster than that of the teachers, especially the grown-up learners, post 16 years let's say. It was so earlier too, but even the facade of higher knowledge (read, degrees, age and experience) is not the greatest of value moving ahead. So mentors shall be needed to inspire, motivate, direct to a new domain of learning or action, bring in perspectives, lend shoulder to a grieving youth, but not just for knowledge and information which are anyways available.

Similarly, student can now be a true learner. They were always so. But the onus of learning is all the more on the learner now on (in the earlier regime teachers teach, students study). Students study for exams, marks and degrees, under the tutelage of teachers, with a structured syllabus. Learners learn within and beyond the classroom, from mentors and others, for lifetime use of knowledge for a career and life, within and beyond the syllabus, structured or unstructured, online or offline.

Engagement is the new currency in the post COVID education, as much as in entertainment. For a long time, the grievance in the classroom was that students are not present and neither interested to learn. That challenge is universal. But digital allows the learner to be engaged at his time, place and pace. And that is good enough. It is a qualitatively different world ahead. Good and bad education will not be decided by marks and numbers of degree certificates handed. It will be decided by the level of academic and related online and social media engagement of the learners, the quality of content shared by mentors, and the value and volume of content generated by engaged learners.

Professor Ujjwal K Chowdhury
The author is a columnist and media academic, working as the Pro Vice Chancellor of Kolkata based Adamas University.


Foreign trip gets easier for dollar account holders

Passport endorsement will not be required for those having private currency account or resident foreign currency deposit account

International account holders will no longer have to endorse their international cards on passports while travelling abroad. But for carrying cash, dollar endorsement will be necessary as before, says a circular of the Bangladesh Bank. The central bank's Foreign Exchange Policy Department issued a circular in this regard on Thursday.

The circular issued on Thursday said at present, Bangladeshis who do not hold foreign passports require endorsement in their passports for carrying US dollars in cash or in international cards to meet travel expenses.

However, such endorsement will not be required for those having private currency accounts and resident foreign currency deposit accounts. These account holders include Bangladeshi nationals residing abroad, foreign companies and citizens, diplomats, Bangladeshi nationals working for foreign institutions inside the country.

Diplomats, Privileged persons, UN personnel, government officials travelling on official duties do not require to have their passports endorsed for carrying money.

In case of travel to SAARC countries and Myanmar, a maximum of $5,000 or equivalent amount of currency can be endorsed for one calendar year. Outside of SAARC countries, this amount is $6,000. For children under 12 years of age, the required amount would be half.

For resident Bangladeshi nationals going abroad against a one-way ticket for valid job or migration or study purposes, authorized dealers may release the entire unused foreign exchange of the annual travel entitlement of the person concerned in a calendar year.


History / Education philosophy of Khan Bahadur Ahshan Ullah (R)
« on: January 18, 2021, 11:04:44 PM »
খানবাহাদুর আহ্ছানউল্লা (র:) শিক্ষাদর্শন - ১


মানসিক শক্তির পরিপুষ্টি শিক্ষার প্রধান লক্ষ্য। শিশুর মনোবৃত্তিগুলি এরূপে পরিচালিত করিতে হইবে যে, এই শক্তির
উন্নতি সাধিত হইতে পারে। যে শিক্ষা দ্বারা এই শক্তি পরিপুষ্ট না হয়, তাহা প্রকৃত শিক্ষাবাচ্য নহে। কতকগুলি বিষয়
কণ্ঠস্থ করিলে কোন শক্তি জন্মে না। পরীক্ষায় কৃতকার্য্যতা কখনও শিক্ষকের লক্ষ্য হওয়া উচিত নহে। জ্ঞানদান ও
মানসিক শক্তির পরিপুষ্টি তাঁহার একমাত্র লক্ষ্য হইবে। শিক্ষক কেবল বিদ্বান হইলেই শিক্ষাকার্য্য সুষ্ঠুরূপে পরিচালিত
হয় না। শিক্ষকের অনেকগুলি গুণ থাকা আবশ্যক, যথা- উপযোগিতা, প্রবৃত্তি ও আগ্রহ, শিক্ষার্থীর প্রতি সহানুভূতি,
হৃষ্টচিত্ততা, শাসনক্ষমতা, শিক্ষাকৌশল ও উপস্থিতবুদ্ধি।

শিশুর স্বভাব লক্ষ্য করিয়া শিক্ষাদান করিতে হইবে। উহার বাহ্যজ্ঞান, ধারণশক্তি প্রভৃতি বিবেচনা করিয়া শিক্ষককে
ত্রমশঃ অগ্রসর হইতে হইবে। জ্ঞান ইন্দ্রিয়গ্রাহ্য; যাহাতে সকল ইন্দ্রিয়েরই পরিচালনা হয়, তৎপ্রতি শিক্ষক দৃষ্টি
রাখিবেন। আমাদের অধিকাংশ জ্ঞান চক্ষু ও কর্ণ সাহায্যে জন্মিয়া থাকে, সুতরাং এই দুইটি ইন্দ্রিয়ের বিশেষ অনুশীলন
প্রয়োজনীয়। শিশুর প্রথম জ্ঞান বস্তুসাপেক্ষ হওয়া আবশ্যক। বস্তু ব্যতিরেকে শিশুকে কোন শিক্ষা দেওয়া উচিত নহে।
শিশু প্রকৃত ভাব উপলব্ধি করিতে পারিয়াছে কি না, ইহা নানাপ্রকার প্রশ্ন দ্বারা পরীক্ষা করিতে হইবে। অস্পষ্ট ভাব ও
অসস্পূর্ণ জ্ঞান বিঘœদায়ক। শব্দ পরিত্যাগ করিয়া শব্দবোধক ভাবে প্রতি চিন্তাশক্তিকে পরিচালিত করাইতে হইবে। দৃষ্টি
শব্দের উপর চালিত হইবে সত্য কিন্তু চিন্তা শব্দঘটিত অর্থের উপর ধাবিত হইবে। পরিশেষে শব্দের বিনা সাহায্যে
চিন্তাশক্তি এক ভাব হইতে ভাবান্তরে আকৃষ্ট হইবে। ভাষা ও জ্ঞান দুইটি পৃথক বস্তু। উভয়েরই উন্নতি বাঞ্ছনীয়।
শিক্ষা প্রথমে বস্তুবিষয়ক ও ক্রমে ভাববিষয়ক হইবে। শিশুর প্রধান জ্ঞান অপরের সাক্ষ্য সাপেক্ষ হওয়া উচিত নহে।
শিশু স্বয়ং পর্যবেক্ষণ করিয়া দৃষ্টান্ত হইতে সংজ্ঞা গঠন করিবে। ইহাতে উহার জ্ঞানের প্রসার হইবে।

সহজ হইতে জটিল ও জ্ঞাত হইতে অজ্ঞাত বিষয়ে অগ্রসর হওয়া সুশিক্ষার অন্যতম প্রণালী। ইন্দ্রিয়লব্ধ জ্ঞান হইতে
ক্রমে ইন্দ্রিয়ের অলব্ধ জ্ঞানলাভের চেষ্ট করিতে হইবে। দৃষ্ট বস্তুর জ্ঞানের সাহায্যে দৃষ্টি বহির্ভূত বস্তুর জ্ঞান জন্মাইতে
হইবে। ইহাতে চিন্তাশক্তি পরিপুষ্ট হইবে।

পদার্থ, চিত্র বা আদর্শ সাহায্যে শিশুকে প্রথম শিক্ষা দিতে হইবে। শিক্ষণীয় বিষয়টি শিশুকে দর্শন বা স্পর্শ করিতে
দেওয়া আবশ্যক, পরে গল্পচ্ছলে ঐ পদার্থ সম্বন্ধে নানাবিধ তথ্য শিক্ষা দেওয়া উচিত। যে পর্য্যন্ত পদার্থটি সম্বন্ধে তাহার
বিবরণগুলি দৃঢ়ীভূত না হইবে, সে পর্য্যন্ত অন্য বিষয়ের আলোচনা করিতে হইবে না।

শিশু বয়স্ক হইলে উহার স্মৃতিশক্তি পরিপুষ্ট করিতে হইবে। ঐ সময়ে তাহাকে কবিতা, নামতা, প্রভৃতি কণ্ঠস্থ করাইতে
হইবে। দশ বৎসর বয়স অতীত হইলে ক্রমে যুক্তি ও তর্কশক্তি পরিচালনা করিতে হইবে। পদার্থ সম্মুখে না রাখিয়া
সেই সম্বন্ধে মৌখিক আলোচনা করিতে হইবে।

সুপ্রশ্ন শিক্ষার একটি প্রধান অবলম্বন। যে শিক্ষক সুপ্রশ্ন করিতে পারেন, তাঁহার কৃতকার্য্যতা স্থিরনিশ্চয়। ছাত্র হইতে
প্রশ্নের সমস্ত উত্তর লইতে চেষ্টা করিতে হইবে। অনেক স্থানে শিক্ষক পরিশ্রম করিয়া থাকেন, কিন্তু ছাত্র নির্ব্বাক ও
নিষ্কাম থাকে। ইহাতে অলসতা বৃদ্ধি পায় ও কার্য্যাত্মক প্রবৃত্তির বিনাশ হয়। ছাত্রকে আত্মাবলম্বন শিক্ষা দিতে হইবে।
ইহাতে অনুসন্ধিৎসা বাড়িতে ও নূতন শক্তির সঞ্চার হইবে। এক বাক্য দ্বারা বারংবার একই প্রশ্ন করা নিষিদ্ধ। ইহাতে
বৃথা সময় নষ্ট হয় ও ছাত্রের মনোযোগের হ্রাস হয়। এমন কোন প্রশ্ন করিতে হইবে না, যাহার উত্তরে “হ্যাঁ” বা “না”
বলিলেই চলিতে পারে। এইরূপ প্রশ্ন দ্বারা শিক্ষার অপব্যবহার হয় ও ছাত্রের ঔৎসুক্য নিরস্ত হয়। প্রশ্ন করিবার সময়
শিক্ষক সমস্ত ক্লাসের প্রতি লক্ষ্য করিয়া প্রশ্ন করিবেন, কিঞ্চিৎ পরে কোন ছাত্রকে উত্তরের জন্য মনোনীত করিবেন।
ছাত্রদিগকে ক্রম অনুসারে প্রশ্ন করা নিষিদ্ধ। কখন কখন ছাত্রবিশেষকে প্রশ্ন করিতে বলিতে হইবে। যে ছাত্র উত্তর না
দিতে পারিবে, প্রশ্নকারী উত্তর দিয়া তাহার স্থান অধিকার করিবে। এইরূপ প্রশ্নে ছাত্রগণ আমোদ উপভোগ করবে।
উত্তর খাঁটি ও সম্পূর্ণ না হইলে অগ্রাহ্য হইবে। অর্দ্ধ উত্তর সর্ব্বদা পরিত্যাজ্য। পূর্ণবাক্যে উত্তর দেওয়া কখনো কখনো
আবশ্যক। ভাল উত্তর পাইলে প্রশংসাবাদ দেওয়া বাঞ্ছনীয়। উহাতে অপর ছাত্রের কৌতূহল বাড়ে। অসম্পূর্ণ উত্তর
সর্ব্বসমক্ষে অগ্রাহ্য করিতে হইবে। কাহারও উত্তর অগ্রাহ্য হইলে কুৎসিত বাক্য প্রয়োগ অসঙ্গত। অভদ্রতার সহিত
উত্তর করিলে উত্তরকারীকে নিরুৎসাহ ও লাঞ্ছিত করিতে হইবে। বারংবার প্রশ্ন করিবার পরও ছাত্রগণ উত্তর দিতে
অসমর্থ হইলে, শিক্ষিতব্য বিষয় পুনরালোচনা করিতে হইবে। কোন কোন সময়ে ছাত্র বালকদিগকে এক সঙ্গে উত্তর

দিতে উৎসাহিত করিতে হইবে, ইহাতে লাজুক ও ভীত ছাত্র ক্রমে সাহসী হইবে। কোন নির্দ্দিষ্ট বালককে সর্ব্বদা
উত্তরের জন্য মনোনীত করা নিষিদ্ধ। বিশেষ কারণ ব্যতীত শিক্ষক স্বয়ং উত্তর বলিয়া দিবেন না; তবে আবশ্যক হইলে
কখন কখন ইঙ্গিতমাত্র দিতে পারেন।

কেবল পরিশ্রমী হইলে সুশিক্ষক হওয়া যায় না। যে প্রণালী অবলম্বন করিলে শিক্ষণীয় বিষয় সহজবোধ্য হয়, তাহারই
চেষ্টা করিতে হইবে। শিক্ষা কষ্টসাধ্য হইলে কার্যকরী হয় না। যাহাতে শিক্ষকের বৃথা সময় নষ্ট না হয়, অথচ ছাত্রদিগের
মানসিক শক্তির উৎকর্ষ ঘটে তৎপ্রতি শিক্ষকের দৃষ্টি থাকা উচিত।

কোন একটি বিষয়ের অত্যধিক আলোচনা করিলে মনোযোগ শক্তির হ্রাস হয়। সাহিত্য, গণিত, ইতিহাস, ভূগোল
প্রভৃতি পাঠ্য বিষয়গুলি পর্য্যায় পরিবর্ত্তন করিলে মনের প্রফুল্লতা জন্মে ও জড়তা দূর হয়। অনেক সময় ব্যাপিয়া কোন
পাঠ দেওয়া সঙ্গত নহে, ইহাতে মনোবৃত্তি শিথিল হইয়া পড়ে। ব্যায়াম এই শিথিলতা দূর করে ও পুনঃ পাঠের জন্য
ঔৎসুক্য বৃদ্ধি করে।

কৃতকার্য্যতার জন্য শিক্ষকের পক্ষে কষ্টসহিষ্ণুতা, ধৈর্য্য, ভদ্রতা, অমায়িকতা, গাম্ভীর্য্য ও দয়া একান্ত আবশ্যক। এক
কথায় বলিতে হইলে, শিক্ষকের আদর্শ পুরুষ হওয় উচিত। তাঁহার বিদ্যা ও চরিত্র সকলের অনুকরণীয় হইবে। অনেক
শিক্ষক শাসনসংরক্ষণ হেতু চীৎকার করিয়া থাকেন, ইহা দূষণীয় হইবে। শিক্ষকের ভ্রƒভঙ্গি ছাত্রের মনে ভয়ের সঞ্চার
করিবে ও ঈষৎ হাস্য পুরস্কারস্থানীয় হইবে। শিক্ষক প্রত্যেক ছাত্রের দক্ষতা ও অভাব ভালরূপ দেখিবে। এক দিকে
তাহার স্বভাবের প্রতি ও অপর দিকে তাহার জ্ঞানের প্রতি দৃষ্টি রাখিয়া শিক্ষণীয় বিষয়ের অবতারণা করিবেন। তাঁহাকে
সর্ব্বদা মনে রাখিতে হইবে যে, তিনি ছাত্রগণের শিক্ষক, শাসনকর্তা ও বন্ধু।

ছোট বালকদিগের শিক্ষার জন্য বক্তৃতা পদ্ধতি উপযোগী নহে। উহাতে ছাত্রদিগের আত্মাবলম্বনের লোপ হয়,
বুদ্ধিশক্তির খর্ব্বতা হয় ও অভিনিবেশের হ্রাস হয়। কলেজে বহু ছাত্র একত্রে সমন্বিত হইলে অধ্যাপকগণ বক্তৃতার উপর
নির্ভর করিতে বাধ্য হইয়া থাকে। সুকোমলমতি শিশুর পক্ষে ইহা উপাদেয় নহে।

অনেক শিক্ষক স্বীয় পরিচ্ছদের প্রতি লক্ষ্য রাখেন না। সাহেব না সাজিয়াও অনেকে পরিষ্কার পরিচ্ছন্নতা অবলম্বন
করিতে পারেন। শিক্ষকের স্থান আদর্শস্থানীয়, সুতরাং তাঁহার মলিন বস্ত্র, অপরিষ্কৃত জুতা, তৈলাক্ত টুপী শোভা পায়

না। ব্যহ্যিক পারিপাট্য আভ্যন্তরীণ চরিত্রের পরিচায়ক। ইহাতে ছাত্রেরা স্বভাবতঃ আকৃষ্ট হয়। কোন কোন শিক্ষক
ক্লাসের মধ্যে বিশ্রীভাবে দাঁড়াইয়া থাকেন, ইহা ছাত্রদিগের পক্ষে অনুকরণীয়। শিক্ষকের অধিক সময় “এটেন্সন্”
অবস্থায় দাঁড়াইয়া থাকা উচিত। দেওয়ালে ঠেস দেওয়া, চেয়ারে পা তুলিয়া বসা বা টেবিলে পা উঠাইয়া দেওয়া
শিক্ষকের পক্ষে নিষিদ্ধ। এই সমস্ত কু-অভ্যাস বালকদিগের অনুকরণীয় হওয়া উচিত নহে।


Economy / COVID-19 has made Bangladesh richer per capita than India
« on: January 18, 2021, 10:32:04 PM »
By Ashfaq Zaman
Director of the Dhaka Forum and co-founder of CNI News.

South Asia Has a New Economic Leader. Will the World Take Note?
COVID-19 has made Bangladesh richer per capita than India. Will diplomatic partners shift their strategies as a result?

Bangladesh — the overcrowded, overpopulated flood-prone state that, founded in 1971, is barely older than the internet — is now one of the richest countries in South Asia. The region was rocked by this week’s data that Bangladesh’s GDP per capita will exceed India’s this year, despite India having a 25 percent lead just five years ago.

There is no doubt about what has tipped the balance: COVID-19. While India has struggled to bring the virus under control, Bangladesh’s data-led innovative public health approach and rapidly improving digital infrastructure has allowed the economy to continue growing. But will the world take note, and realize that there are newer (and more stable) South Asian partners beyond the traditional ones? Will the new “Global Britain” prioritize the Bengal Tiger for a trade deal? And will the U.S. president (whether that’s Donald Trump or Joe Biden, come January 2021) consider Bangladesh a priority in South Asia, or stick with familiar partners?

Certainly this news will change the calculus by which an economy — and a nation state’s — strength is judged. Rather than just looking at a country’s currency, exports, and governance, its biosecurity capacity will now be seen as something as pivotal as national security — an area of policy that can make or break everything else.

It is not just Bangladesh’s growth that has contributed to this result, but India’s decline after severely mismanaging both the health and economic fallout of the pandemic.

China is the best example of how swift and effective pandemic management can support continued economic growth (consumer spending there has already returned to pre-pandemic levels and its GDP grew 5 percent in the last quarter).

Enjoying this article? Click here to subscribe for full access. Just $5 a month.

But China is an extreme case — there will be many winners across the world. And there will inevitably be some who can learn a great deal from those winners, and avoid further blunders.

This change in South Asia’s economic pecking order, combined with improving social indicators and rapid digitalization, could mean that many global powers will pivot more of their attention toward Dhaka.

The shift is overdue. Since India’s independence, it has understandably been the focus of the region’s economic and political activity. The region itself is often referred to as the Indian Subcontinent, perhaps a colonial hangover based on generations of Brits who interacted with an India that was essentially the only significant state in the region (not only modern day Pakistan and Bangladesh, but also Burmese territory was part of Colonial India).

But now things have changed, most notably in Bangladesh. Avoiding the tribal or sectarian divisions that have plagued Pakistan and increasingly blighted India, Dhaka has created a resilient economy and society, and maintained a diplomatic strategy that allows strategic partnerships with a range of competing world powers.

Economically, it would be unfair to describe its GDP per capita eclipsing India’s as a pandemic-related fluke: Bangladesh has long been one of the fastest-growing economies in the world and has recently entered the ranks of middle income countries, with the aim of becoming a developed country by 2041.

Its society has developed almost as quickly as its economy. Gender equality and women’s rights are on the march, with the death penalty recently being implemented for rapists, in a sign that the female-led country will not tolerate the violence against women that is so systemic in other parts of the region.

All this is underpinned by an ambitious digitization strategy led by a2i, a tech and digital transformation department founded by the Prime Minister’s Office. As digital economic inclusion is rolled out across the country, expect to see more tech startups like ShopUp, which this week raised $22.5 million from leading Venture Capital firm Sequioa. Free Economic Zones, like the one set up in conjunction with Japan’s government last month (Tokyo’s biggest investment in South Asia), will speed up the process.

Beyond economic growth, the realignment of power across South Asia raises important diplomatic opportunities. As the United States attempts to maintain its role in the region, Bangladesh may be a crucial partner, particularly given Dhaka’s strategic partnership with Beijing.

Similarly for the U.K., perhaps London will follow in Tokyo’s footsteps and prioritize the relationship with Bangladesh. A U.K.-Bangladesh trade deal would be a strong start to Britain’s post-EU strategy, with a significant portion of Bangladesh’s garment sector being dependent on U.K. consumers.

It has become common for political leaders to claim that they will “build back better” after COVID-19, with the slogan appearing across the world and capturing many people’s hopes. As we build back better, we should remember that the building blocks are not the same as they were before the pandemic. Nowhere is that truer than in South Asia.


Law / How citizen engagement with RTI law is transforming lives
« on: January 16, 2021, 11:33:50 AM »
Writer- Shamsul Bari and Ruhi Naz
Chairman and RTI Coordinator respectively of Research Initiatives, Bangladesh (RIB)

During the construction work of a regional highway in Dinajpur, local inhabitants were increasingly bothered by the dust it generated. One of them, Mosaddekul Islam, fired by his new-found knowledge of the Right to Information (RTI) Act, asked the concerned public authority what measures were taken to ensure that no harm was caused to the local population by its operation. On receipt of his RTI request, the project engineer immediately directed the construction firm to spray the affected areas with water twice a day, which was promptly done.

This and similar other stories were shared last month among activists and fans of the RTI Act from all over the country. They had gathered for a virtual meeting to find out how the law had fared during the pandemic. It appeared that fear and devastation caused by the pandemic had spurred their appreciation of the tremendous importance of transparency and accountability in governance. Our earlier fears about the negative impact of the crisis on the operation of the law were largely belied.

We were elated not because a larger number of citizens were utilising the law or had become more proficient in seeking pertinent information from public authorities, nor because the latter had become more responsive to peoples' information requests. Nor had the Information Commission become more attentive to removing impediments citizens face in applying the law, or more prone to chastise public officials for disobeying its provisions. We were particularly encouraged by the remarkable growth in citizens' understanding of the value of the law in monitoring the work of public authorities and drawing their attention to peoples' concerns. They had begun to grasp the tremendous transformative power of the law. A few examples will illustrate the point.

RTI application stops embezzlement of public fund
An RTI activist, Mominul, of Taraganj upazila of Rangpur, once discovered that a group of day labourers who were beneficiaries of the government's "40-day Work Programme", meant to help the unemployed during times of employment scarcity, were engaged in earth-filling work under its "Housing Programme" for the homeless. As he knew that there were separate budgets for the two programmes, he suspected that the contractor was perhaps trying to dupe the government by engaging the work programme beneficiaries on the housing programme, thereby embezzling the money allotted for the latter. So, he decided to ask for copies of relevant project documents from the project coordinator's office. Soon after submitting his RTI request, he came to know that the concerned labour force was removed from the earth-filling work under the housing programme and engaged in road construction work elsewhere. As the news spread, peoples' appreciation of the timely RTI intervention by Mominul spread far and wide.

RTI halts illegal money collection by traffic police
RTI activist Marufa Akhtar of Dinajpur town was vexed by the police practice of seizing auto-rickshaws under one pretext or another and releasing them afterwards against payment of a so-called fine without any money receipt. She decided to submit an RTI request to the local police authority seeking to know if there was any rule about not providing money receipts against fines levied and how the money thus collected was accounted for. She was soon informed that the police super had issued orders to stop the practice and that the defaulting police officials would be properly dealt with in the future. The odious practice has reportedly stopped now.

RTI resolves long-standing problem for a local community
RTI activist Nowshad Hossain of Dinajpur came to know that the construction work on a road in Chirirbandar upazila had remained stalled for over 18 months. He decided to submit a RTI request to the upazila authorities asking for information relating to the suspension of the work for such a long time and the expected time for its completion. Within ten days of his submission, local residents were pleasantly surprised to find that the construction work had resumed.

RTI reveals irregularities in purchase of musical instruments
RTI buff Mominul Islam Sarker of Taraganj upazila in Rangpur wanted to find out how many cultural bodies of his area had received government fund designed to promote cultural activities. He submitted an RTI request to the upazila office asking for the list of local clubs which received such funding during the year 2019-2020. On the basis of the response he received, Mominul checked with his local club and discovered that not only was no musical instrument bought with the money, but the fake receipt adduced as evidence of such a purchase was a voucher from the local brick kiln. The news both amused and angered the local population. Mominul subsequently submitted a complaint to the upazila executive.

RTI application stops irregularity in agricultural service
The same Mominul Islam Sarker of Taraganj upazila, now well-known in the area for his RTI activism, submitted an RTI request to the upazila agriculture office asking for the list, with photographs, of local cardholders and recipients of government stimulus packages on agriculture. He received the information in due course. Upon checking the list, he discovered that same pictures appeared on cards of different persons and there were other irregularities as well. So, he followed up with another RTI request seeking reasons for the irregularities and asking to know whether remedial measures were taken. In his response, the designated officer admitted that irregularities were indeed found, and remedial measures already taken. It increased Mominul's faith in RTI, as his earlier efforts to engage the Anti-Corruption Commission (ACC) in this regard had failed.

The examples give us hope about the future of RTI in the country. They demonstrate the progress made in inculcating an awareness among the users that the law can be invoked for myriad reasons, impacting society and the nation at large, and not for personal needs alone.

To translate the progress into furthering the overall objectives of the law more proficiently, it may be useful for the captains of RTI to unpeel the various components of the concept. Towards that end, we share below our own perceptions of the subject and hope that others in the civil society will do the same. 

To us, the RTI law aims to do the following: 1) promote citizens' role in monitoring the work of the government and other public bodies; 2) help citizens share their concerns on specific governance issues with the relevant public authorities through seeking pertinent information on them; 3) assist public authorities to realise that their work is being watched by the people and they may face consequences for any delinquency; 4) create opportunities for public officials to interact with the people and become more people-friendly and law-abiding; 5) change the age-old, "ruler-ruled" mentality in people's mind and make them realise that public officials are not their masters but allies; 6) contribute to systemic change in the way public authorities do their job; 7) inculcate a sense of "citizenship entitlement" among the people and make them feel that they have a say in governance matters, whatever their place in society; and 8) strengthen democracy by facilitating the development of a "whistle-blower" role for citizens to alert the government about irregularities in governance and promote transparency and accountability in public work.

We leave it to the readers to decide how many of these objectives have been achieved through the above examples.


লিখেছেনঃ আলী হাসান তৈয়ব
মুসলিম মাত্রেই বিশ্বাস করেন যে তার আয় ও উপার্জন, জীবন ও মৃত্যু,  এবং সৌভাগ্য ও দুর্ভাগ্য ইত্যাদি র্নিধারণ হয়ে যায় যখন তিনি মায়ের উদরে থাকেন। আর এসব তিনি লাভ করেন তার জন্য বরাদ্দ উপায়-উপকরণগুলোর মাধ্যমে। তাই আমাদের কর্তব্য হলো হাত গুটিয়ে বসে না থেকে এর জন্য র্নিধারিত উপায়-উপকরণ সংগ্রহে চেষ্টা করা। যেমন চাষাবাদ, ব্যবসায়-বাণিজ্য, শিল্প-চারু, চাকরি-বাকরি বা অন্য কিছু। আল্লাহ তা‌‘আলা বলেন: “তিনিই তো তোমাদের জন্য যমীনকে সুগম করে দিয়েছেন, কাজেই তোমরা এর পথে প্রান্তরে বিচরণ কর এবং তাঁর রিযক থেকে তোমরা আহার কর। আর তাঁর নিকটই পুনরুত্থান।” [সূরা আল-মুলক, আয়াত: ১৫]

আজ আমরা রিজিক বৃদ্ধির উপায়সমূহের মধ্যে কুরআন ও হাদীস রোমন্থিত ১৪টি আমলের কথা আলোচনা করব ইনশাআল্লাহ।

প্রথম আমল: তাকওয়া ও তাওয়াক্কুল অবলম্বন করা। আল্লাহর ভয় তথা তাকওয়া অবলম্বন করা, তাঁর নির্দেশাবলি পালন ও নিষিদ্ধ বিষয়গুলো বর্জন করা। পাশাপাশি আল্লাহর ওপর অটল আস্থা রাখা, তাওয়াক্কুল করা এবং রিজিক তালাশে তাঁর সাহায্য প্রার্থনা করা। কারণ, যে আল্লাহর ওপর ভরসা করে তিনিই তার জন্য যথেষ্ট হয়ে যান। আল্লাহ তা‘আলা ইরশাদ করেন: “আর যে আল্লাহকে ভয় করে, তিনি তার জন্য উত্তরণের পথ তৈরী করে দেন। এবং তিনি তাকে এমন উৎস থেকে রিযক দিবেন যা সে কল্পনাও করতে পারবে না। আর যে আল্লাহর ওপর তাওয়াক্কুল করে আল্লাহ তার জন্য যথেষ্ট। আল্লাহ তাঁর উদ্দেশ্য পূর্ণ করবেনই। নিশ্চয় আল্লাহ প্রত্যেক জিনিসের জন্য একটি সময়সীমা নির্ধারণ করে দিয়েছেন।” [সূরা আত-তালাক, আয়াত: ২-৩]

অর্থাৎ যে আল্লাহকে ভয় করবে এবং আনুগত্য দেখাবে, আল্লাহ তার সকল সংকট দূর করে দেবেন এবং তার কল্পনাতীত স্থান থেকে রিজিকের সংস্থান করে দেবেন। আর যে কেউ তার উদ্দেশ্য হাসিলে একমাত্র আল্লাহর শরণাপন্ন হয় তিনিই তার জন্য যথেষ্ট হয়ে যান। বলাবাহুল্য এই তাকওয়ার পরিচয় মেলে হালাল উপার্জনে চেষ্টা এবং সন্দেহযুক্ত কামাই বর্জনের মধ্য দিয়ে।

দ্বিতীয় আমল: তাওবা ও ইস্তেগফার করা। অধিক পরিমাণে ইস্তেগফার এবং বেশি বেশি আল্লাহর কাছে ক্ষমা প্রার্থনা করলেও রিজিক বাড়ে। আল্লাহ তা‘আলা তাঁর অন্যতম নবী ও রাসূল নূহ আলাইহিস সালামের ঘটনা তুলে ধরে ইরশাদ করেন: “আর বলেছি, ‘তোমাদের রবের কাছে ক্ষমা চাও; নিশ্চয় তিনি পরম ক্ষমাশীল’। (তাঁর কাছে ক্ষমা চাইলে) ‘তিনি তোমাদের উপর মুষলধারে বৃষ্টি বর্ষণ করবেন, ‘আর তোমাদেরকে ধন-সম্পদ ও সন্তান- সন্ততি দিয়ে সাহায্য করবেন এবং তোমাদের জন্য বাগ-বাগিচা দেবেন আর দেবেন নদী-নালা।” [সূরা নূহ, আয়াত: ১০-১২]

হাদীসে বিষয়টি আরেকটু খোলাসা করে বলা হয়েছে, আবদুল্লাহ ইবন আব্বাস রাদিআল্লাহু আনহু কর্তৃক বর্ণিত, রাসূলুল্লাহ সাল্লাল্লাহু আলাইহি ওয়াসাল্লাম বলেন: “যে ব্যক্তি নিয়মিত ইস্তেগফার করবে আল্লাহ তার সব সংকট থেকে উত্তরণের পথ বের করে দেবেন, সব দুশ্চিন্তা মিটিয়ে দেবেন এবং অকল্পনীয় উৎস থেকে তার রিজিকের সংস্থান করে দেবেন।” [আবূ দাঊদ : ১৫২০; ইবন মাজা : ৩৮১৯; তাবরানী : ৬২৯১] [1]

অন্য হাদীসে বর্ণিত হয়েছে, আবদুল্লাহ ইবন আব্বাস রাদিআল্লাহু আনহু থেকে বর্ণিত, রাসূলুল্লাল্লাহ সাল্লাল্লাহু আলাইহি ওয়াসাল্লাম বলেন: “যে ব্যক্তি বেশি বেশি ইস্তেগফার করবে আল্লাহ তার সব সংকট থেকে উত্তরণের পথ বের করে দেবেন, সব দুশ্চিন্তা মিটিয়ে দেবেন এবং অকল্পনীয় উৎস থেকে তার রিজিকের ব্যবস্থা করে দেবেন।” [বাইহাকী : ৬৩৬; হাকেম, মুস্তাদরাক : ৭৬৭৭ সহীহ সূত্রে বর্ণিত।]

তৃতীয় আমল: আত্মীয়দের সঙ্গে সুসম্পর্ক রাখা। আত্মীয়দের সঙ্গে সুসম্পর্ক বজায় রাখা এবং তাদের হক আদায়ের মাধ্যমেও রিজিক বাড়ে। যেমন : আনাস ইবন মালেক রাদিআল্লাহু আনহু থেকে বর্ণিত, তিনি বলেন, আমি রাসূলুল্লাহ সাল্লাল্লাহু আলাইহি ওয়াসাল্লামকে বলতে শুনেছি তিনি ইরশাদ করেন: “যে ব্যক্তি কামনা করে তার রিজিক প্রশস্ত করে দেওয়া হোক এবং তার আয়ু দীর্ঘ করা হোক সে যেন তার আত্মীয়দের সঙ্গে সুসম্পর্ক বজায় রাখে।” [বুখারী : ৫৯৮৫; মুসলিম : ৪৬৩৯]

চতৃর্থ আমল: নবী সাল্লাল্লাহু আলাইহি ওয়াসাল্লামের ওপর দরূদ পড়া। রাসূলুল্লাহ সাল্লাল্লাহু আলাইহি ওয়াসাল্লামের প্রতি দরূদ পাঠেও রিজিকে প্রশস্ততা আসে। যেমনটি অনুমিত হয় নিম্নোক্ত হাদীস থেকে। তোফায়েল ইবন উবাই ইবন কা‘ব রাদিআল্লাহু আনহু কর্তৃক বর্ণিত, তিনি বলেন: “আমি জিজ্ঞেস করলাম, হে আল্লাহর রাসূল, আমি আপনার প্রতি অধিকহারে দরূদ পড়তে চাই, অতএব আমার দু‘আর মধ্যে আপনার দরূদের জন্য কতটুকু অংশ রাখব? তিনি বললেন, তুমি যতটুকু চাও। কা‘ব বলেন, আমি বললাম, এক চতুর্থাংশ। তিনি বললেন, তুমি যতটুকু চাও। তবে যদি তুমি বেশি পড় তা তোমার জন্য উত্তম হবে। আমি বললাম, অর্ধেক? তিনি বললেন, তুমি যতটুকু চাও। তবে তুমি যদি বেশি পড় তা তোমার জন্য উত্তম হবে। কা‘ব বলেন, আমি বললাম, তাহলে দুই তৃতীয়াংশ? তিনি বললেন, তুমি যতটুকু চাও। তবে তুমি যদি বেশি পড় তা তোমার জন্য উত্তম হবে। আমি বললাম, আমার দু‘আর পুরোটা জুড়েই শুধু আপনার দরূদ রাখব। তিনি বললেন, তাহলে তা তোমার ঝামেলা ও প্রয়োজনের জন্য যথেষ্ট হবে এবং তোমার গুনাহ ক্ষমা করা হবে।” [তিরমিযী : ২৬৪৫; হাকেম, মুস্তাদরাক : ৭৬৭৭ (আবূ ঈসা বলেন, হাদীসটি ‘হাসান’ সহীহ।)]

পঞ্চম আমল: আল্লাহর রাস্তায় ব্যয় করা। আল্লাহর রাস্তায় কেউ ব্যয় বা দান করলে তা বিফলে যায় না। সে সম্পদ ফুরায়ও না। বরং তা বাড়ে বৈ কি। আল্লাহ তা‘আলা ইরশাদ করেন: “বল, ‘নিশ্চয় আমার রব তাঁর বান্দাদের মধ্যে যার জন্য ইচ্ছা রিযক প্রশস্ত করেন এবং সঙ্কুচিত করেন। আর তোমরা যা কিছু আল্লাহর জন্য ব্যয় কর তিনি তার বিনিময় দেবেন এবং তিনিই উত্তম রিযকদাতা।” [সূরা আস-সাবা’, আয়াত : ৩৯]

ষষ্ঠ আমল: বারবার হজ-উমরা করা। হজ ও উমরা পাপ মোচনের পাশাপাশি হজকারী ও উমরাকারীর অভাব-অনটন দূর করে এবং তার সম্পদ বাড়িয়ে দেয়। আবদুল্লাহ ইব্ন মাসঊদ রাদিআল্লাহু আনহুমা কর্তৃক বর্ণিত, তিনি বলেন, ‘রাসূলুল্লাহ সাল্লাল্লাহু আলাইহি ওয়াসাল্লাম বলেন: “তোমরা হজ ও উমরা পরপর করতে থাক, কেননা তা অভাব ও গুনাহ দূর করে দেয়, যেমন দূর করে দেয় কামারের হাপর লোহা, সোনা ও রুপার ময়লাকে।” [তিরমিযী : ৮১৫; নাসাঈ : ২৬৩১]

সপ্তম আমল: দুর্বলের প্রতি সদয় হওয়া বা সদাচার করা। মুস‘আব ইবন সা‘দ রাদিআল্লাহু আনহু যুদ্ধজয়ের পর মনে মনে কল্পনা করলেন, তিনি বোধ হয় তাঁর বীরত্ব ও শৌর্য-বীর্য হেতু অন্যদের চেয়ে নিজেকে বেশি মর্যাদাবান। সেই প্রেক্ষিত রাসূলুল্লাহ সাল্লাল্লাহু আলাইহি ওয়াসাল্লাম বললেন: “তোমাদের মধ্যে থাকা দুর্বলদের কারণে কেবল তোমাদের সাহায্য করা হয় এবং রিজিক প্রদান করা হয়।” [বুখারী : ২৮৯৬]

অষ্টম আমল: ইবাদতের জন্য ঝঞ্ঝাটমুক্ত হওয়া। আল্লাহর ইবাদতের জন্য ঝামেলামুক্ত হলে এর মাধ্যমেও অভাব দূর হয় এবং প্রাচুর্য লাভ হয়। যেমনটি বর্ণিত হয়েছে আবূ হুরায়রা রাদিআল্লাহু আনহু কর্তৃক। রাসূলুল্লাহ সাল্লাল্লাহু আলাইহি ওয়াসাল্লাম বলেন: “আল্লাহ তা‘আলা বলেন, হে আদম সন্তান, আমার ইবাদতের জন্য তুমি ঝামেলামুক্ত হও, আমি তোমার অন্তরকে প্রাচুর্য দিয়ে ভরে দেব এবং তোমার দারিদ্র ঘুচিয়ে দেব। আর যদি তা না কর, তবে তোমার হাত ব্যস্ততায় ভরে দেব এবং তোমার অভাব দূর করব না।” [তিরমিযী : ২৬৫৪; মুসনাদ আহমদ : ৮৬৮১; ইবন মাজা : ৪১০৭]

নবম আমল: আল্লাহর রাস্তায় হিজরত করা। আল্লাহর সন্তুষ্টির নিমিত্তে হিজরত তথা স্বদেশ ত্যাগ করলে এর মাধ্যমেও রিজিকে প্রশস্ততা ঘটে। যেমনটি অনুধাবিত হয় নিচের আয়াত থেকে। আল্লাহ তা‘আলা বলেন: “আর যে আল্লাহর রাস্তায় হিজরত করবে, সে যমীনে বহু আশ্রয়ের জায়গা ও সচ্ছলতা পাবে। আর যে আল্লাহ ও তাঁর রাসূলের উদ্দেশ্যে মুহাজির হয়ে নিজ ঘর থেকে বের হয় তারপর তাকে মৃত্যু পেয়ে বসে, তাহলে তার প্রতিদান আল্লাহর উপর অবধারিত হয়। আর আল্লাহ ক্ষমাশীল, পরম দয়ালু।” [সূরা আন-নিসা, আয়াত: ১০০]

আয়াতের ব্যাখ্যা আবদুল্লাহ ইবন আব্বাস প্রমুখ সাহাবী রাদিআল্লাহু আনহুদ বলেন, স্বচ্ছলতা অর্থ রিজিকে প্রশস্ততা।

দশম আমল: আল্লাহর পথে জিহাদ। একমাত্র আল্লাহর সন্তুষ্টি হাসিলের জিহাদেও সম্পদের ব্যপ্তি ঘটে। গনীমত বা যুদ্ধলব্ধ সম্পদের মাধ্যমে সংসারে প্রাচুর্য আসে। যেমন ইবন উমর রাদিআল্লাহু আনহু কর্তৃক বর্ণিত, রাসূলুল্লাহ সাল্লাল্লাহু আলাইহি ওয়াসাল্লাম বলেন: “আর আমার রিজিক রাখা হয়েছে আমার বর্শার ছায়াতলে।” [মুসনাদ আহমদ : ৫৬৬৭; বাইহাকী : ১১৫৪; শু‘আবুল ঈমান : ১৯৭৮৩]

একাদশ আমল: আল্লাহর নেয়ামতের শুকরিয়া আদায় করা। সাধারণভাবে আল্লাহ যে রিজিক ও নিয়ামতরাজি দান করেছেন তার জন্য আল্লাহর শুকরিয়া করা এবং তাঁর স্তুতি গাওয়া। কারণ, শুকরিয়ার ফলে নেয়ামত বৃদ্ধি পায়। আল্লাহ তা‘আলা ইরশাদ করেন: “আর যখন তোমাদের রব ঘোষণা দিলেন, ‘যদি তোমরা শুকরিয়া আদায় কর, তবে আমি অবশ্যই তোমাদের বাড়িয়ে দেব, আর যদি তোমরা অকৃতজ্ঞ হও, নিশ্চয় আমার আযাব বড় কঠিন।” [সূরা ইবরাহীম, আয়াত: ০৭]

আয়াতে আল্লাহ তা‘আলা শুকরিয়ার বদৌলতে নেয়ামত বাড়ানোর ঘোষণা দিয়েছেন। আর বলাবাহুল্য আল্লাহর বাড়ানোর কোনো সীমা-পরিসীমা নাই।

দ্বাদশ আমল: বিয়ে করা। আজকাল মানুষের দুনিয়ার প্রাচুর্য ও বিলাসের প্রতি আসক্তি এত বেশি বেড়েছে, তারা প্রচুর অর্থ নেই এ যুক্তিতে প্রয়োজন সত্ত্বেও বিয়ে বিলম্বিত করার পক্ষে রায় দেন। তাদের কাছে আশ্চর্য লাগতে পারে এ কথা যে বিয়ের মাধ্যমেও মানুষের সংসারে প্রাচুর্য আসে। কারণ, সংসারে নতুন যে কেউ যুক্ত হয়, সে তো তার জন্য বরাদ্দ রিজিক নিয়েই আসে। আল্লাহ তা‘আলা ইরশাদ করেন: “আর তোমরা তোমাদের মধ্যকার অবিবাহিত নারী-পুরুষ ও সৎকর্মশীল দাস দাসীদের বিবাহ দাও। তারা অভাবী হলে আল্লাহ নিজ অনুগ্রহে তাদেরকে অভাবমুক্ত করে দেবেন। আল্লাহ প্রাচুর্যময় ও মহাজ্ঞানী।” [সূরা আন-নূর, আয়াত: ৩২]

উমর ইবন খাত্তাব রাদিআল্লাহু আনহুমা বলতেন, ওই ব্যক্তির ব্যাপার বিস্ময়কর যে বিয়ের মধ্যে প্রাচুর্য খোঁজে না। কারণ স্বয়ং আল্লাহ বলেছেন, ‘তারা অভাবী হলে আল্লাহ নিজ অনুগ্রহে তাদেরকে অভাবমুক্ত করে দেবেন।’

ত্রয়োদশ আমল: অভাবের সময় আল্লাহমুখী হওয়া এবং তার কাছে দু‘আ করা। রিজিক অর্জনে এবং অভাব দূরীকরণে প্রয়োজন আল্লাহর কাছে দু‘আ করা। কারণ, তিনি প্রার্থনা কবুল করেন। আর আল্লাহ তা‘আলাই রিজিকদাতা এবং তিনি অসীম ক্ষমতাবান। আল্লাহ তা‘আলা বলেন: “আর তোমাদের রব বলেছেন, ‘তোমরা আমাকে ডাক, আমি তোমাদের জন্য সাড়া দেব।” [সূরা আল-মু‘মিন, আয়াত : ৬০]

এ আয়াতে আল্লাহ দু‘আ করার নির্দেশ দিয়েছেন আর তিনি তা কবুলের জিম্মাদারি নিয়েছেন। যাবৎ না তা কবুলে পথে কোনো অন্তরায় না হয়।  যেমন ওয়াজিব তরক করা, হারাম কাজে জড়ানো, হারাম আহার গ্রহণ বা হারাপ পরিচ্ছদ পরা ইত্যাদি এবং কবুলকে খানিক বিলম্বিতকরণ। আল্লাহর কাছে দু‘আয় বলা যেতে পারে: “হে রিজিকদাতা আমাকে রিজিক দান করুন, আপনি সর্বোত্তম রিজিকদাতা। হে আল্লাহ আমি আপনার কাছে পবিত্র সুপ্রশস্ত রিজিক চাই। হে ওই সত্তা, দানের ঢল সত্ত্বেও যার ভাণ্ডারে কমতি হয় না। হে আল্লাহ, আমাকে আপনি আপনার হালাল দিয়ে আপনার হারাম থেকে যথেষ্ট করে দিন আর আপনার দয়া দিয়ে আপনি ছাড়া অন্যদের থেকে যথেষ্ট হয়ে যান। হে আল্লাহ আপনি আমাকে যে রিজিক দিয়েছেন তা দিয়েই সন্তুষ্ট বানিয়ে দিন। আর যা আমাকে দিয়েছেন তাতে বরকত দিন।”

অভাবকালে মানুষের কাছে হাত না পেতে আল্লাহর শরণাপন্ন হলে এবং তাঁর কাছেই প্রাচুর্য চাইলে অবশ্যই তার অভাব মোচন হবে এবং রিজিক বাড়ানো হবে। আবদুল্লাহ ইবন মাসঊদ রাদিআল্লাহু আনহু কর্তৃক বর্ণিত, রাসূলুল্লাহ সাল্লাল্লাহু আলাইহি ওয়াসাল্লাম বলেন: “যে ব্যক্তি অভাবে পতিত হয়, অতপর তা সে মানুষের কাছে সোপর্দ করে (অভাব দূরিকরণে মানুষের ওপর নির্ভরশীল হয়), তার অভাব মোচন করা হয় না। পক্ষান্তরে যে অভাবে পতিত হয়ে এর প্রতিকারে আল্লাহর ওপর নির্ভরশীল হয় তবে অনিতবিলম্বে আল্লাহ তাকে তরিৎ বা ধীর রিজিক দেবেন।” [তিরমিযী : ২৮৯৬; মুসনাদ আহমদ : ৪২১৮]

চতুর্দশ আমল: গুনাহ ত্যাগ করা, আল্লাহর দীনের ওপর সদা অটল থাকা এবং নেকীর কাজ করে যাওয়া। গুনাহ ত্যাগ করা, আল্লাহর দীনের ওপর অটল থাকা এবং নেকীর কাজ করা- এসবের মাধ্যমেও রিজিকের রাস্তা প্রশস্ত হয় যেমন পূর্বোক্ত আয়াতগুলো থেকে অনুমান করা যায়। তবে সর্বোপরি আমাদের মনে রাখতে হবে আমরা দুনিয়াতে চিরদিন থাকার জন্য আসি নি। তাই দুনিয়াকে প্রাধান্য না দিয়ে উচিত হবে আখিরাতকে অগ্রাধিকার ও প্রাধান্য দেয়া। আমাদের এদেন অবস্থা দেখে আল্লাহ তা‘আলা বলেন: “বরং তোমরা দুনিয়ার জীবনকে প্রাধান্য দিচ্ছ। অথচ আখিরাত সর্বোত্তম ও স্থায়ী।” [সূরা আল-আ‘লা, আয়াত : ১৬-১৭]

আর পরকালের মুক্তি ও চিরশান্তিই যার প্রধান লক্ষ্য তার উচিত হবে রিজিকের জন্য হাহাকার না করে অল্পে তুষ্ট হতে চেষ্টা করা। যেমন : হাদীসে এসেছে, আবদুল্লাহ ইবন আমর ইবন আ‘স রাদিআল্লাহু আনহুম থেকে বর্ণিত, রাসূলুল্লাহ সাল্লাল্লাহু আলাইহি ওয়াসাল্লাম বলেন: “ওই ব্যক্তি প্রকৃত সফল যে ইসলাম গ্রহণ করেছে আর তাকে জীবন ধারণে (অভাবও নয়; বিলাসও নয়) পর্যাপ্ত পরিমাণ রিজিক দেয়া হয়েছে এবং আল্লাহ তাকে যা দিয়েছেন তাতে তুষ্টও করেছেন।” [মুসলিম : ২৪৭৩; তিরমিযী : ২৩৪৮; আহমদ : ৬৫৭২]

পরিশেষে আল্লাহর কাছে প্রার্থনা, তিনি যেন আমাদের এসব উপায়-উপকরণ যোগাড় করে রিজিক তথা হালাল উপার্জনে উদ্যোগী ও সফল হবার তাওফীক দান করেন। তিনি যেন আপনাদের রিজিক ও উপার্জনে প্রশস্ততা দান করেন।


[1]. (শায়খ উসাইমীন বলেন, সনদগত দিক থেকে হাদীসটি দুর্বল কিন্তু এর মর্ম ও বক্তব্য সহীহ বা সঠিক। কুরআনের আয়াত ও হাদীসে এই বক্তব্যের সমর্থন বিদ্যমান। এই হাদীস সম্পর্কে বিস্তারিত আলোচনার পর শায়খ বিন বায বলেন, সর্বোপরি হাদীসটি তারগীব ও তারহীব তথা মানুষকে আখিরাতের আগ্রহ বা ভয় দেখানোর ক্ষেত্রে গ্রহণযোগ্য। কারণ, এ ব্যাপারে কুরআন ও সুন্নাহে একাধিক বক্তব্য পাওয়া যায়। [ফাতাওয়া নূর আলাদ-দারবি (হাদীসের ব্যাখ্যা ও তার হুকুম।]     

ওয়েব সম্পাদনাঃ মোঃ মাহমুদ -ই- গাফফার


According to the study "Entrepreneurship ecosystems in Latin America and the Caribbean against COVID-19" by the Inter-American Development Bank (IDB), technological enterprises are those that can better enhance their capacities to be more agile.

We share the following four lessons that, like us, will help you to be prepared in this new year:

1. Listen to the needs of your potential customers: Justo was founded thanks to the fact that a group of restaurants approached us to help them build a direct online sales channel and thus avoid the high commissions of delivery apps; This is where we noticed the technological needs that restaurateurs lacked and we decided to undertake to help them regain control of their business. Without a doubt, actively listening to the needs of your potential clients will help you guide your venture towards what the public really requires and offer solutions with long-term growth potential.

2. Take care of your time: During 2020, more than three-quarters of the Mexican entrepreneurs surveyed by Endeavor admitted to working more than 50 hours a week, generating stress and low productivity, so if you are looking to grow and take your business to the Next level, it is essential that you have spaces -both your own and for your team- to exchange ideas, innovate, as well as leisure and disconnection from day to day.

3. Keep your motivation fresh: We left behind one of the most challenging years in our history and - surely - it has left an emotional mark. It is interesting to note that according to the Association of Entrepreneurs of Mexico , 36% of Mexican entrepreneurs are afraid of failure, so it will be key to recognize that uncertainty will prevail and we will need constant motivation for the day to day. Some useful tools are to set short and medium term objectives; visualize what we want to achieve, what resources we have and in what time we can do it; Recognize the factors that we cannot control, as well as prepare ourselves to determine what risks we can take.

4. Create support networks: In Latin America, more than half of the entrepreneurs surveyed by the IDB acknowledged that they tried to solve the pandemic crisis only with their work team, without resorting to someone else, which implied effects, whether economic or emotional. A vital lesson for this 2021 is to remember the strength of building and having a support network: family, friends, collaborators, work teams, colleagues, suppliers; as well as forums, chambers, associations to listen to other experiences on how to overcome adverse seasons, promote joint work and promote the growth of the sector. Let us remember that social distance does not imply isolation: let's look for options to move forward, together and for the benefit of all.

We do not know what this new year has in store for us, what we do know is that part of the economic recovery and stability of the region will be driven by entrepreneurs and their capacity for enthusiasm, optimism, learning and adaptation skills. By joining forces we make sure to create virtuous circles, as well as strengthen a more supportive, empathetic and fair circular economy.


বিষে ভরা বিশ সালে হারিয়ে গেছে বহু ব্যবসা। যুক্তরাষ্ট্রের নানা পরিসংখ্যানে দেখা গেছে, ২০১৯ সালে যুক্তরাষ্ট্রে ৯ হাজার ৩০০ স্টোর বন্ধের ঘোষণা দেওয়া হয়েছিল। ২০২০ সালে এসে এই সংখ্যা আরও অনেক বেশি হবে। বড় বড় কোম্পানির চেইন স্টোরই কেবল বন্ধ হয়েছে ১২ হাজার। মহামারি এখনো থেমে নেই, তাই ঝুঁকিতে আছে অনেক কোম্পানি। ফরচুনের এক প্রতিবেদনে এ তথ্য জানানো হয়েছে।

করোনার কারণে বিশ্বের অন্যতম ক্ষতিগ্রস্ত হয়েছেন খুচরা বিক্রেতারা। অ্যাস অ্যান্ডি গ্লোবাল মার্কেট ইন্টেলিজেন্সের তথ্য অনুযায়ী, বিদায়ী বছরে ৬১০টি মার্কিন কোম্পানি দেউলিয়া হতে আবেদন করে। এই তালিকায় রয়েছে জেসি পেনি, নেইম্যান মার্কাস এবং জে.ক্রিউ, হার্তজ, সিবিএল অ্যান্ড অ্যাসোসিয়েটস প্রোপার্টি, ইন্টারনেট সরবরাহকারী ফ্রন্টিয়ার কমিউনিকেশনস, তেল ফিল্ড পরিষেবা সরবরাহকারী সুপিরিয়র এনার্জি সার্ভিসেস। করোনার বড় থাবা পড়েছে ডিপার্টমেন্ট স্টোর, পোশাক কোম্পানি এবং যারা নিত্যপ্রয়োজনীয় নয় এমন পণ্য বিক্রি করে।

গ্রাহকেরা বড় স্টোরগুলোর প্রতি বেশি আগ্রহী থাকেন, কারণ এসব জায়গায় সব কেনাকাটা এক ছাদের নিচে করা যায়। তাঁরা খাবার এবং বাড়ির উন্নয়নে প্রয়োজন এমন পণ্যে বেশি কিনেছেন করোনার সময়। তাই নিত্যপণ্য বিক্রি করে না এমন খুচরা দোকানগুলো দেউলিয়া হওয়ার জন্য আবেদন করেছে বেশি। দেউলিয়ার জন্য আবেদন করা ২০ শতাংশ কোম্পানিই এমন। ভ্যাকসিন এলেও ২০২১ সাল এমন সব কোম্পানির জন্য ভালো যাওয়ার সম্ভাবনা কম।

চ্যাপটার ১১-এর অধীনে দেউলিয়ার ঘোষণার জন্য আবেদন করেছে যে বড় বড় কোম্পানিগুলো

১. ফ্রন্টিয়ার কমিউনিকেশন
দেনার দায়ে জর্জরিত হয়ে প্রায় ৮৫ বছরের পুরোনো ফোন ও ইন্টারনেট পরিষেবা প্রদানকারী এই কোম্পানিটি চ্যাপটার ১১ অধীনে দেউলিয়ার ঘোষণার জন্য আবেদন করে।

২. নেইম্যান মার্কাস
করোনার শুরুতেই ধাক্কা সামলাতে পারেনি নেইম্যান মার্কাস। শত বছরের পুরোনো ডিজাইনারস ক্লদিং, হ্যান্ডব্যাগ, শু এবং বিউটি পণ্যের জন্য বিখ্যাত মার্কিন এই ডিপার্টমেন্ট স্টোর গত ৭ মে দেউলিয়া হওয়ার আবেদন করে।

৩. ডায়মন্ড অফশোর ড্রিলিং
ঋণ সামাল দিতে না পেরে এপ্রিলে ডায়মন্ড অফশোর ড্রিলিং দেউলিয়া সুরক্ষার আবেদন করে। প্রায় আড়াই হাজার কর্মীর এই প্রতিষ্ঠানের ২০১৯ সালে আয় হয় ৯৮ কোটি ডলার।

৪. টেইলরড ব্র্যান্ডস
গত জুলাইয়ে যুক্তরাষ্ট্রের টেইলরড ব্র্যান্ড ৫০০ বিক্রয়কেন্দ্র বন্ধ করে দেওয়ার ঘোষণা দেয়। মহামারি চলাকালীন এর কয়েক লাখ কর্মী বাড়ি থেকে কাজ করেছেন। তারপরও লোকসান ঠেকাতে পারেনি তারা।

৫. দ্য ম্যাকক্ল্যাচি কো
 সংবাদপত্র সংস্থাটি বছরের পর বছর ধরে মুদ্রণ সাবস্ক্রিপশন কমে যাওয়ায় ধুঁকছিল। ফলে ফেব্রুয়ারিতে দেউলিয়া হয়ে যায়।

৬. সিবিএল এবং অ্যাসোসিয়েটস প্রোপার্টি
 বহু আগে থেকে এই স্টোরের ক্রেতা কমে গিয়েছিল। করোনায় যেন আরও ধুঁকতে শুরু করে। পরে দেউলিয়া হওয়ার আবেদন করে।

৭. টোয়েন্টি ফোর আওয়ার ফিটনেস
লকডাউন চলার সময় বন্ধ হওয়া প্রথম ব্যবসায়গুলোর মধ্যে ছিল এটি। করোনার ধাক্কায় জুলাইয়ে বন্ধ হয়ে যায়।

৮. হার্তজ
করোনায় ক্ষতিগ্রস্ত খাতগুলোর মধ্যে অন্যতম হলো পর্যটন খাত। আমেরিকার গাড়ি ভাড়া দেওয়া বিখ্যাত প্রতিষ্ঠান হার্তজ। মে মাসে প্রতিষ্ঠানটির প্রধান নির্বাহী বিদায় নিয়েছেন, সেই সঙ্গে দেউলিয়া ঘোষণার আবেদন করেছে তারা। উত্তর আমেরিকাজুড়ে ছাঁটাই করা হয়েছে ১০ হাজার কর্মীকেও।

৯. কোরাম হেলথ
 ২৪টি হাসপাতাল চালানো এই সংস্থা ঋণে জর্জরিত ছিল। এ ছাড়া কোভিড-১৯ পরিস্থিতি মোকাবিলায় সক্ষম না হওয়ায় দেউলিয়া হয় তারা।

১০. জেসি পেনি, জেসি ক্রিউ
মে মাসের মাঝামাঝি ১১৮ বছরের পুরোনো মার্কিন চেইন ডিপার্টমেন্ট স্টোর জেসি পেনি নিজেদের চ্যাপটার ১১-এর অধীনে দেউলিয়া ঘোষণার জন্য আবেদন করে। জেসি পেনি যুক্তরাষ্ট্রে ৮৫০টির বেশি স্থানে পোশাক, প্রসাধনসামগ্রী ও গয়না বিক্রি করে। প্রায় ৮০ হাজার কর্মী কাজ করেন এই কোম্পানিতে। এর আগে মে মাসের শুরুতে খুচরা পোশাক বিক্রেতা প্রতিষ্ঠান জে ক্রিউ দেউলিয়া হওয়ার আবেদন করে।


Pages: 1 2 [3] 4 5 ... 43